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Energy industry in Finland
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General State of the Economy

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe. Its capital city is Helsinki [1]. The country has a land border with Sweden (to the north-west), with Russia (to the east), Norway (to the north), and also has maritime borders with Estonia. Finland has access to the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia.
According to 2017 statistics Finland, which in terms of size is 64th in the world, is home to more than 5.5 million people. In terms of population density the country is 219th from the 255 countries considered [2,3]. Finland is a presidential republic and the official languages are Finnish, Swedish and Sami. The administrative map of the country is divided into 19 regions [3].
Finland has a modern diversified market economy, which is reflected in Figure 1. The country's economy is based on woodworking, metallurgy, machine-building, telecommunications and electronics industries [3]. By almost every indicator in the presented diagram, Finland places in the top 25% of the leading countries in the world included in the rating.

Figure 1. Economic Indices of Finland
 
Sources:
1. GDP (purchasing power parity), 2017/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *229
2. GDP - per capita (PPP), 2017/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
3. Inflation rate (consumer prices), 2017/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *224
4. Market value of publicly traded shares, 2012-2017/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *121
5. The Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, Index/Reports/World Economic Forum *137
6. High-technology exports (current US$) 2015-2016/United Nations, Comtrade database through the WITS platform. License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *151
7. 2018 Index of Economic Freedom/International Economies/The Heritage Foundation *180
8. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold, 2017/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *176
9. GDP growth (annual %), 2017/World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files. License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *200
10. Public debt (% of GDP), 2014-2017/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *202
  * Total number of countries participating in ranking
 
 
Figure 1. Economic Indices of Finland
 

Between 1993 and 2008 the country experienced sustained GDP growth in purchasing power parity, both in general and per capita, followed by a decrease and economic volatility [4,5]. GDP at purchasing power parity increased from $238.6 billion in 2015 to $244 billion (63rd place in the world) in 2017[3]. The country’s GDP at purchasing power parity per capita is high (38th place in the world in 2017), which has also been demonstrating positive dynamics: from $43,600 in 2015 to $44,300 in 2017[3].
The level of inflation changed from 0.4% in 2016 to 0.8% in 2017, in terms of this indicator the country was 43rd in the world (ranked by levels of inflation, low to high)[3], by the level of market value of publicly traded shares in 2016, the country was 33rd in the world. According to The Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, presented by the World Economic Forum, Finland ranked 10th (out of an estimated total of 137 countries), behind Switzerland, Sweden, and other, larger countries – the USA, Japan and Germany. This rating reflects the effectiveness of the use of the country’s own resources for sustainable development. In addition to a number of economic indicators this index also takes into account such variables as education, health, level of innovation, etc. In the list of countries that exported high-tech products in 2015-2016, Finland was 36th, slightly behind Norway. According to the Index of Economic Freedom, which is based on freedom of business, freedom from government action, property protection, and freedom from corruption, the country was considered “mostly free”: 26th, out of 180 countries. In terms of gold reserves and foreign exchange reserves Finland was 72nd in the world. According to the indicator for the average GDP growth in % over the last 10 years, in 2017 the country was 180th out of 200 countries considered. In terms of public debt, calculated as a percentage of the country's GDP, Finland in 2017 was ranked 141 out of 202 countries.
Despite the country's high level of GDP per capita, the latter two indices partly reflect a number of negative trends in the Finnish economy related to demographic problems, a contraction in the volume of business of a leading Finnish company, Nokia, as well as a reduction in the turnover of some important industries, particularly those based on deep wood processing.

For more information on the economy of Finland see the attached link library by clicking  here

Energy Resources

Finland has practically no reserves of fossil resources, but due to its geographic location, it has various reserves of renewable energy sources. A selection of basic indicators of this type of resource is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Renewable energy resources of Finland  

Resource/
explanations
Solar Potential
(GHI)*
Wind Potential
(50 м)*
Hydro energy
Potential**
Bio Potential
(agricultural area)
Bio Potential
(forest area)
Geothermal
Potential
Municipal Solid
Waste
Value<2.76.5-7.516 0267.573.115-69551
UnitkWh/m2/day m/sMW% of land area% of land areamW/m2kg per capita
Year2018201820152016201620002018
Source[9][10][6][11][12][8][13]

* for the majority of the territory of the country

The economically exploitable hydropower capability in Finland is 16 026 GWh/year. For comparison, this is about 3.5 times less than the economically accessible hydro potential of Austria, 3 times less than Italy and slightly less than in neighbouring Sweden [6]. According to experts, the potential of Finland's geothermal energy ranges between 15-69 mW/m2 [7]. The most favourable conditions for the implementation of heat pump technology to exploit this geothermal potential are found in the southern regions of Finland, in particular in Uisimaa [8]. The level of global horizontal radiation does not exceed 2.7 kWh/m2/day, and in the south of the country, along the Gulf of Finland, it can reach its maximum of 2.7-3.0 kWh/m2/day [9]. These are insufficient resources for the mass development of solar energy in the country. The distribution of wind resources is as follows: for the majority of the country the wind speed is 6.5-7.5m/s, while in the southwest of the country it can exceed 7.5 m/s at the height of 50 m [10]. This offers promising potential for the future development of wind energy in Finland, which would allow wind energy to compete with Finland’s established renewable technologies - bio and hydropower. According to data from 2016, 7.5% of the territory of the country is occupied by agricultural land, the area of which has been slightly decreasing during the last half-century [11] There has been a slight increase in forest area to 73.1% [12].
According to Eurostat, Finland's municipal waste generation was 551 kg per capita in 2018; ahead of, for example, Sweden - (434 kg per person), but behind Norway - (739 kg per person) [13]. This resource is a valuable raw material for recycling or energy production, the technologies of which have reached a high level of development in Finland.

A detailed list of sites and special reports on Finnish energy resources can be found here.

Energy Balance

According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019, Finland’s total primary energy consumption in 2018 was 29.3 million tons of oil equivalent, around 36.5% from oil, 17.7% from nuclear energy, 14.7% from coal, 14.7% from renewable energy, 10.2% from hydropower, and 6.2% from natural gas [14]. Using the data from [3,14], we calculated GDP per unit of primary energy use in Finland in 2017 to be $8.8, taking into account PPP in 2011 prices per unit of energy expended (the equivalent of energy contained in one kg of oil equivalent/$ PPP per kg of oil equivalent), which is significantly lower than the world average level of GDP energy efficiency.
Oil consumption between 2001 and 2017 remained almost unchanged (Fig. 2), and in 2017 totalled 209.67 thousand barrels/day [15]. In 2017, the total final oil products consumption in the country was 7 463 ktoe [16]. According to a BP survey, Finland’s level of oil consumption in 2018 was 229 thousand barrels/day [14]. Oil imports to Finland in 2018 were estimated at 236,700 barrels/day [3].

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Jan 2020) / www.eia.gov

Figure 2. The Production and Consumption of fossil fuels in Finland (coal – left, gas – in the center, oil – right)

The consumption of natural gas in the country between 2001 and 2010 did not exceed 177 Bcf, but subsequently declined and in 2017 amounted to 82.81 Bcf [15]. According to the International Energy Agency, the total final natural gas consumption in the country amounted to 735 ktoe in 2017 [16]. According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019 [14], gas consumption in the country in 2018 was 2 billion m3. In 2017, Finland imported about 2.322 Bcm of natural gas [3].
Coal consumption in the country has gradually decreased since 2003, and in 2017 amounted to 4.84 million short tons, against 9.83 million short tons in 2003 [15]. According to BP, in 2018 coal consumption amounted to 4.3 million tons of oil equivalent [14]. In the Total Primary Energy Supply the share of domestic production in Finland in 2018 was not more than 56% according to [16]. The main suppliers of primary resources are enterprises of bioenergy and nuclear energy. For neighbouring Sweden, also not very rich in fossil resources, this figure is just over 70% [16], in Norway, also neighbouring Finland, domestic production is many times higher than the total domestic consumption, since the country is a large exporter of energy resources.
Finland mainly uses nuclear energy and hydropower for the production of electricity, but it is worth noting the increase of the share of renewable energy sources (especially bioenergy) and, as a consequence, the decline of the share of fossil sources (Fig. 3).

                                    
Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Jan 2020) / www.eia.gov
 
                                       Figure 3. Electricity Generation in Finland 


In 2017 according to the Central Intelligence Agency, the country produced 65.4 TWh of electricity, where nuclear power accounted for 33%, hydropower  22.3%, renewables  26.4%, and fossil fuels – 18.3% (Fig. 6). Finland’s position in the comparative diagram of energy index is shown in Fig. 4.
Finland does not appear in the first three indices due to the absence of significant reserves of fossil energy sources, and, for the same reason, it is in the lower half of the chart for such indicators as the ratio of their production and consumption.

 
Sources:
1. Crude oil proved reserves, 2017/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *93
2. Natural gas proved reserves, 2017/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *99
3. Total recoverable coal reserves, 2015/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *81
4. Combination production-consumption for Crude oil, 2015/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *214
5. Combination production-consumption for Natural gas, 2015/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *111
6. Combination production-consumption for Coal, 2015/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *127
7. Electricity – from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity), 2015/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *166
8. GDP per unit of energy use (PPP per unit of oil equivalent), 2017; Primary energy consumption - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018/BP;
GDP (purchasing power parity) - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *66
9. Energy use (primary energy use of oil equivalent per capita), 2017; Primary energy consumption - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018/BP; Population -
World Population Prospects/United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017), World Population Prospect: The 2017 Revision,
Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248/ *66

10. The Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report (EAPI) 2017, Rankings/Reports/World Economic Forum *127
11. Electric power consumption (kWh per capita), 2015-2016; Electricity Consumption - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency; Population -
World Population Prospects/United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017), World Population Prospect:
The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248/ *212

12. Combination of electricity production-consumption (kWh), 2015-2016/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *216

* Total number of countries participating in ranking
 
 Figure 4. Energy indices of Finland 


In another rating from 2015 listing countries by their production of electricity from renewable sources (excluding hydropower), Finland placed 26th out of 166 countries selected for review, which is remarkable for such a sparsely populated country. In 2017 Finland was 42nd out of 67 countries ranked by the ratio of GDP per unit of energy use in 2016. The energy consumption per capita is much higher –17th in the world, slightly below the Netherlands and Norway among EU countries.
In terms of electricity consumption per capita, the country is fifth in the world, second only to Iceland and Norway in the region. However, for the indicator of combined electricity production-consumption, Finland is at the penultimate place in the ranked list of 216 countries. The volume of electricity imports in 2016 was 22.11 billion kWh (exporting 3.159 billion kWh), according to preliminary estimates from [3], significantly ahead of EU countries such as Sweden or Belgium, that also have limited fossil fuel resources, but are more populated.

More information about the energy balance of Finland can be found in the documents from our reference library here.

Energy Infrastructure

A territorial map showing the distribution of the largest infrastructure projects of the fossil fuel sector and electricity in Finland is shown in Figure 5.
In order to meet domestic demand Finland has to rely on energy imports, due to the lack of reserves of fossil energy resources. As mentioned above, according to the International Energy Agency, the share of domestic production in Total Primary Energy Supply in 2016 was about 52% (Fig. 5).
Oil refining in Finland is conducted at two refineries, the largest
– Porvoo, Nestle Oil has an installed capacity of 206,000 bbl/day [17] (Fig. 5). Oil and petroleum products are imported via six oil terminals, there are also six large oil storage facilities in the country.  Porvoo Oil Storage is one of the largest, with a storage capacity of 8.0 mln m3 [18].

Map of fossil fuel and power plants in Finland
                                   Figure 5. Basic Infrastructure facilities of the fossil fuel Sector and Electricity in Finland

The country has a significant number of stations for the production of electricity from hydrocarbons, including, including four gas, four combined-type, three coal-fired, three oil and two nuclear power plants (Fig. 5). The largest power plants in the country are: Vuosaari gas power plant with a capacity of 630 MW [19]; Suomenoja combined-typepower plant with a capacity of 350 MW; Meri-Pori coal power plant with a capacity of 565 MW; the complex of nuclear power plants -Olkiluoto 1-2, with an installed capacity of 1760 MW; and Forssa oil power plant, with a capacity of 318 MW [20,21,22,23]. The main hydroelectric power plant is Imatra, with an installed capacity of 192 MW [24].
Figure 6 shows the main infrastructure facilities in Finland for the production of renewable energy.

Map of Renewable energy infrastructure in Finland
                                   Figure 6. Renewable Energy in Finland

As noted above, renewable energy (excluding hydroenergy) accounted for 14.61TWh in 2015(Fig. 6).
In zones of high wind activity there are 13 large wind farms, each with a capacity of more than 40 MW. In 2016 there were about 225 wind farms with a total installed capacity of 2113 MW in Finland [25], the largest is Metsälä Wind Park, with an installed capacity of 117.3 MW [26].
As mentioned earlier, the level of direct solar radiation in some areas of the country can reach 3 kWh/m2 [9]. As a result, a small Eco-Viikki solar district heating plant was installed around the area of the capital, generating about 1 MW/hour of thermal energy [27].
The share of bioenergy in the production of electricity by renewable sources is 37.9% (Figure 6). Finland is one of the most advanced countries in the world in the development of bioenergy technologies. This is based on the presence of rich forest resources (more than 73% of the country's territory is covered by forests) and strong traditions in the field of wood processing. There are biogas enterprises, as well as enterprises processing municipal garbage, landfill gas, bio-diesel, bioethanol, and pellets (Fig. 6). Finland's large enterprises for the production of second-generation biodiesel and bioethanol are: Porvoo, Neste Oil with an installed capacity of 380,000 tons/year; and Hamina with a capacity of 70,000 tons/year [28.29]. The largest biogas plant in the country is Hämeenlinna, St1 Renewable Energy Industrial Biogas Plant which is capable of producing about 2,100,000 m³ per year [30].
Other notable enterprises include: Joensuu, Fortum Demo BTL-FT Plant that produces 50,000 tons/year of liquid hydrocarbons [31]; Vilppula, Vapo Wood Pellet Plant, that produces 100,000 tons of pellets annually [32]; Alholmens, Jakobstad, is home to the second largest in the world biomass power plant and Alholmens Kraft Pietersaari bioenergy plant with an installed capacity of 265 MW [33]. The city of Lahti houses the Kymijärvi I-II Biomass power plant, which with a capacity of 160 MW, is the fourth most powerful in the world. It features an atmospheric gasifier using plastic, paper, cardboard and wood as raw materials [33]. The country also has enterprises that use advanced fast pyrolysis technology. The most prominent are Joensuu and Fortum, with an installed capacity of 6313 kg/h [36], and the Mikkeli, Biosaimaa Torrefaction Plant, which can produce about 10,000 tons of pellets annually [37]. The leader in the generation of electricity from municipal waste is Helsinki-Vantaa, with a capacity of 320,000 tons/year [34]. Ämmässuo, Espoo generates about 15 Mwe of electricity from landfill gas [35]. It should be noted that in recent years Finland has consistently been among the top ten countries in the world in terms of electricity production from municipal waste per capita.
Finland is actively developing hydrogen as an energy source for vehicles. As of August 2018, there were 2 hydrogen filling stations in operation in the country (Fig. 6). There are also several plants producing hydrogen, the largest being Raisio, Linde Compressed Hydrogen Plant, with an installed capacity of 708 Nm³/hour [38].

For current information on the development of energy in the country see here. More information about Finnish energy infrastructure is also available here.

Education and Innovation

The set of indices reflecting the position of Finland among other countries in the field of education and innovation can be seen in Figure 7.
Finland is 7th out of 126 countries considered in the ranking of countries of the Global Innovation Index 2017 (see diagram), slightly behind Sweden, but ahead of Norway and Austria, which indicates the highest level of innovative activity in the country.

 Figure 7. The Indices of Education and Innovation in Finland 
 
Sources:
1. The Global Innovation Index 2018, Rankings/Knowledge/World Intellectual Property Organization/Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2018): Energizing the World with Innovation. 
Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva
*126
2. Patent Grants 2007-2016, resident & abroad / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization / www.wipo.int/portal/en/ *175
3. Patents in Force 2016 / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization / www.wipo.int/portal/en/ *89
4. QS World University Rankings 2018 /www.topuniversities.com *84
5. SCImago Country Rankings (1996-2017)/Country rankings/SCImago, (n.d.). SJR—SCImago Journal & Country Rank [Portal]. Retrieved Aug 2018, from www.scimagojr.com *239
6. Internet users in 2016/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *224
7. Internet users in 2016 (% Population); Internet users in 2016 - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency; Population - World Population Prospects/United Nations,
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017), World Population Prospect: The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No.
ESA/P/WP/248/ *224
8. Government expenditure on education, total (% of GDP), 2016/United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *169
9. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP), 2015 / UNESCO Institute for Statistics. License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *120
10. Scientific and technical journal articles, 2016 / National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *196
  * Total number of countries participating in ranking
 
 Figure 7. The Indices of Education and Innovation in Finland 

According to the number of patents granted to Finnish nationals, both domestically and abroad, the country ranks 14th in the world, behind a number of European countries, but higher than the world average. It should be noted that this ranking compares absolute values, and all countries from this rank that are ahead of Finland have a larger number of inhabitants, and most of them are many times larger. Similarly, by the number of valid patents, the country is above the world average - 27th place, indicating the country's favourable conditions for innovation. In terms of government expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, the country ranks highly - 8th out of 169 countries selected for consideration, which has contributed to 10 Finnish universities entering the QS University Rating. Finland is very well positioned when considering the number of publications of specialists in scientific and technological journal and patent activities. The country placed 26th out of 239 participating countries in the Scimago ranking, and in Scientific and Journal Activities it is ranked 34th out of 193 countries. The country is also among the leaders in the region in terms of the number of Internet users and 3rd in terms of public expenditure on research and development as a percentage of GDP.
Finnish universities, such as the University of Helsinki, The Arctic Aalto University, and the University of Oulu train specialists in various fields of energy, including Geology, Mining Engineering, Environmental Engineering and Electrical Engineering, etc. In the field of synthetic fuel production, leaders in patenting are Neste Oyj, UPM-Kymmene Oyj. Research and development in this field is carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Aalto University. In the field of unconventional oil, Outokumpu Oyj, Metsa Specialty Chemicals Oy and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland should be mentioned. Aalto University and Kemira are actively engaged in research in this field. Aalto University and the Geological Survey of Finland conduct research in the field of gas hydrates. Another important patenting area is coalbed methane, here the leaders in patenting among Finnish companies are Wärtsilä Finland Oy, CP KELCO OY. Wärtsilä Finland Oy is a leading patent holder in the field of utilization of coalmine methane and associated petroleum gas.
In the field of hydrocarbon production from reservoirs with low permeability - Kemira, UPM-Kymmene Oyj, CP KELCO OY. The leading patent holders in the field of bioenergy are Neste Oyj, UPM-Kymmene Oyj, Metso Power Oy, and the following research agencies are actively engaged in research: Aalto University, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
A large number of companies patent technical solutions in the field of energy production from renewable sources. In the field of solar energy - Upstream Engineering Oy, Suinno Solar Oy. Leading research organizations in this field is VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Moventas Gears Oy, Ahlstrom Corporation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) are all to the fore in the number of patents in the field of wind power.

Additional information about education in the country can be obtained here, and the list of research institutes here.

Ecology and Environment Protection

The diagram of environmental indices presented in Figure 8 to some extent reflects the ecological situation in the country. The country demonstrates a relatively high level of CO2 emissions both in general, and per capita. It is also necessary to note the high level of methane emissions in the country. Finland is at 9th place in the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2018, which consists of 60 positions and includes 56 countries responsible for more than 90% of global energy-related CO2 emissions.

  
 Sources:
1. CO2 total emission by countries 2016 / European Commission/Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) *208
2. CO2 per capita emission 2016/European Commission/Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) *208
3. Forest area 2015 (% of land area)/The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015/Forestry Statistics/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
4. Forest area change 2010-2015 (ha/year)/The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015/Forestry Statistics/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
5. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2018, Rankings/Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy/Yale University*180
6. The Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) 2005/South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), United National Environment Programme (UNEP) *234
7. The National Footprint Accounts 2018 edition (Data Year 2014) (Biocapacity Reserve/Deficit)/building on World Development Indicators, The World Bank (2016); U.N. Food and
Agriculture Organization/Open Data Platform /Tools and Resources/Global Footprint Network *188
8. Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent), 2012/European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL).
Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR).License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *203
9. The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2018, Overall Results/Jan Burck, Franziska Marten, Christoph Bals, NiklasHöhne/Germanwatch,Climate Action Network International,
New Climate Institute/https://germanwatch.org/en
*56
  * Total number of countries participating in ranking
 
 Figure 8. Environmental Indices of Finland 

In terms of forest area as a percentage of the country, Finland was 13th in 2015 out of 234 countries. However, the trend associated with forest area change from 2010-2015 looks very negative and according to this indicator the country is 88th in the world.
The country is very well positioned in the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2016, which focuses primarily on the environmental activities of national governments, aimed at reducing the negative impact of the environment, and rational use of natural resources. In this ranking Finland is 10th out of 180 participating countries, behind a number of European countries, including Sweden and Switzerland. However, according to the Environmental Vulnerability Index, which is based on years of observations and 50 indicators that include, for example, changing climatic characteristics or the quality of water resources, waste volumes, oil spills and other hazardous substances, etc. Finland is 57th out of 234 countries, and is characterized as “vulnerable". Finally, it is worth mentioning that according to the Ecological Footprint Atlas rating, Finland is among a number of ecological debtors.

For more information on the energy complex of Finland see the attached link library by clicking here.

References

[1] List of sovereign states and dependencies by area / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_and_dependencies_by_area
[2] List of countries and dependencies by population density / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_population_density
[3] Finland / The world factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency / www.cia.gov
[4] GDP, PPP (constant 2011 international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[5] GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)/ World Bank, International Comparison Program database. License : CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[6] World Energy Resources: Hydro World Energy Council / 2013 / Publications / World Energy Council / www.worldenergy.org/
[7]Geothermal Energy in Finland / May 28-June 10, 2000 / Ilmo T. Kukkonen/ World Geothermal Congress / Kyushu – Tohoku, Japan / Geological Survey of Finland / International Geothermal Association / www.geothermal-energy.org
[8] Mapping The Potential Of Renewable Energy In Finland (PDF) / Nidal Abu Shanab / Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences / Theseus.fi / www.theseus.fi
[9] Solar resource data obtained from the Global Solar Atlas, owned by the World Bank Group and provided by Solargis / Global Solar Athlas / globalsolaratlas.info
[10] Finland Wind Map / Global Wind Atlas 2.0, a free, web-based application developed, owned and operated by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in partnership with the World Bank Group, utilizing data provided by Vortex, with funding provided by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). For additional information: globalwindatlas.info
[11] Agricultural land (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License : CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[12] Forest area (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License : CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[13] Municipal waste statistics Updated / 19 July 2018 / Full list / Statistics Explained / Eurostat / ec.europa.eu
[14] BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018 (PDF)/ BP / www.bp.com
[15] International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) www.eia.gov/beta/international/
[16] Finland / Statistics / © OECD / IEA 2018, IEA Publishing, Licence: www.iea.org/t&c / International Energy Agency / www.iea.org
[17] Finland / List of oil refineries / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oil_refineries
[18] Porvoo plants - among the most advanced in Europe / Who we are / Neste / www.neste.com
[19] Vuosaari Power Plants / Power Plants / Energy Production / HELEN / www.helen.fi
[20] Suomenoja CHP plant / Our Power Plants / Fortum / www.fortum.com
[21] Meri-Pori power plant / Our Power Plants / Fortum / www.fortum.com
[22] Nuclear Power in Finland / Country Profiles / Information Library / World Nuclear Association / www.world-nuclear.org
[23] Fingrid’s new reserve power plant inaugurated in Forssa / March 25, 2013 / News / Fingrid / www.fingrid.fi
[24] Vuoksi river system / Our Power Plants / Fortum / www.fortum.com
[25] Finland / Country Profiles / The Wind Power / www.thewindpower.net
[26] EPV Wind’s projects made good progress / Annual Reports / EVP / ar2016.epv.fi
[27] Finland / Plant database / Knowledge center / Solar District Heating / solar-district-heating.eu
[28] Market of biomass fuels in Finland – an overview 2013 (PDF) / Antti Karhunen, Tapio Ranta, Jussi Heinimö, Eija Alakangas / Lappeenranta University of TechnologyFaculty of Technology, LUT EnergyLUT Scientific and Expertise PublicationsRaportit ja selvitykset – Reports 43 Country reports / Publications / IEA Bioenergy Task 40 / task40.ieabioenergy.com
[29] Liste des principales unités de productionde biocarburants avancés en Europe (PDF) / Frédéric DUPONT / Juin 2013 / Val Biom / www.valbiom.be
[30] Biogas plants / About gas / Gasum / www.gasum.com
[31] Finland / Database / IEA Bioenergy Task 39: Commercializing Liquid Biofuels from Biomass / demoplants.bioenergy2020.eu
[32] The wood pellet business in Finland / June 2015 /Proskurina, Svetlana & Heinimö, Jussi & Mikkilä, Mirja & Vakkilainen, Esa. (2015). /Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland;Mikkeli Development Miksei Ltd, Mikkei, Finland / Conference: 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, At Austria, Vienna/ Research Gate / www.researchgate.net
[33] Power from waste – the world’s biggest biomass power plants / April 1, 2014 / Power Technology / www.power-technology.com
[34] Helsinki - Vantaa Incineration Plant / Finland / Waste-to-energy Plants / Energy/ Industry About / www.industryabout.com
[35] Ämmässuo Landfill, Finland / References / Gas Applications / MWM / www.mwm.net
[36] Finland / Pyrolysis Demoplant Database / Publications / IEA Bioenergy Task 34: Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction / www.pyne.co.uk
[37] Evaluation of a pilot-scale wood torrefcaction plant based on pellet properties and Finnish market economics (PDF) / Tapio Ranta, Jarno Föhr, Hanne Soininen / Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lönnrotinkatu 7 50100, Mikkeli, Finland, Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences, Patteristonkatu 3 D, 50100 Mikkeli, Finland / Volume 7, Issue 2, 2016 pp.159-168 / International Journal Of Energy And Environment / www.ijee.ieefoundation.org
[38] Merchant Hydrogen Production Capacities in Europe /Hydrogen Production /Hyarc / Hydrogen Tools / h2tools.org