Kazakhstan, the official name – the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the ninth largest state in the world, with its capital in Astana . The country has land borders with Russia (in the west, north and east), China (in the east), Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan (in the south), and has access to the Caspian and Aral seas.
According to 2022 statistics, Kazakhstan is home to more than 19 million people. In terms of population density the country is 233rd in the world from 248 countries considered [2,3].
The political form of government is a presidential republic and the official languages are Kazakh and Russian. The administrative map of the country is divided into 14 provinces .
Kazakhstan has one of the most developed economies in Central Asia, which is reflected in Figure 1. For eight out of ten indices the positioning of the country is higher than the world average, in the top half of the graph, (i.e. among 50% of the best countries in the world included in the rating). For such indicators as GDP, economic freedom index and public debt, the country can compete with many highly developed countries, however, in terms of inflation and the market value of publicly traded shares, the country is well below the world average.
1. GDP (purchasing power parity), 2020 est. / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
2. GDP - per capita (PPP), 2020 / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *229
3. Inflation rate (consumer prices), 2019 est. / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
4. Charges for the use of intellectual property, receipts (BoP, current US$), 2020 / International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, and data files. / License: CC BY-4.0 *88
5. The Global Competitiveness Index 2019 / Rankings / Reports / World Economic Forum *141
6. High-technology exports (current US$) 2019-2020 / United Nations, Comtrade database through the WITS platform / License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *134
7. 2021 Index of Economic Freedom / International Economies / The Heritage Foundation *178
8. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold, 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency *195
9. Annual average GDP growth in %, for the last 10 years (2011-2020) / World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files / License: CC BY-4.0 *206
10. Public debt (% of GDP), 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency(from smallest to largest) *210
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
Figure 1. Economic Indices of Kazakhstan
Since the beginning of 2000 the country has experienced sustained GDP growth in purchasing power parity, reaching $475.2 billion (41st in the world) in 2020 [3,4]. GDP at purchasing power parity per capita has also been demonstrating stable growth since 1995 and in 2017 amounted to $26 300. The current dynamic of this indicator, according to , is negative: from $26,400 in 2019 to $25 300 in 2020 (75th in the world).
The level of inflation changed from 14.6% in 2016 to 7.4% in 2017, and to 5.2% in 2019; in terms of this indicator the country was 183rd in the world . By the level of market value of publicly traded shares in 2016, the country was 108th in the world.
According to The Global Competitiveness Report 2019, presented by the World Economic Forum, Kazakhstan was 55th (out of an estimated total of 141 countries), having risen by 2 positions in the rating, behind a number of EU countries, but ahead of, for example, Turkey and many countries of the former Soviet Union – Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and Ukraine. This rating reflects the effectiveness of the use of the country’s own resources for sustainable development. In addition to a number of economic indicators this index also takes into account such variables as education, health, level of innovation, etc.
In the list of countries that exported high-tech products in 2019-2020, Kazakhstan was 42nd, slightly behind Norway. According to the Index of Economic Freedom 2021, which is based on freedom of business, freedom from government action, property protection, and freedom from corruption, the country was considered « moderately free », 68th out of 178 countries. In terms of gold reserves and foreign exchange reserves Kazakhstan was 50th in the world.
According to the indicator for the average GDP growth in percentage over the last 10 years, the country was 57th out of 206 countries in 2020. In terms of public debt, calculated as a percentage of the country's GDP, Kazakhstan was ranked 187th out of 210 countries considered in 2017.
Kazakhstan has significant reserves of fossil resources (Table. 1). According to proven reserves of oil and natural gas, the country is ranked 12th and 15th in the world, respectively . According to data for 2021 in terms of tons of oil equivalent, proved oil reserves amounted to 16.9%, natural gas – 9.0%, coal – 74.1% (Figure 5). The matrix of unconventional resources looks somewhat different – oil sands and extra heavy oil accounted for 67.7% in terms of tons of oil equivalent, tight oil – 15.8%, shale gas – 7.9%, kerogen oil – 4.8%, coal mine methane utilization potential – 3.5%, associated gas – 0.3% (Fig. 5).
According to [3,6,7], at the end of 2021 oil reserves in Kazakhstan were estimated at 30 billion barrels.
Table 1. Fossil energy resources of Kazakhstan
|Crude oil||Natural gas||Coal||Shale Gas*||Tight|
|Oil Sands and|
Extra Heavy Oil**
|Value||30||2.407||25 605||25.7||10.6||256-640||2 837||42 009|
|Unit||million bbl||Bcm||million tonnes||Tcf||million bbl||Bcm||million bbl||million bbl|
** in-place resources
Proven natural gas reserves in Kazakhstan have a wide range of estimates. For example, as of 2019, according to , they amounted to 2.406 trillion m3. At the same time, according to BP , at the end of 2020 proven natural gas resources were estimated at 79.7 Tcf, and according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, they amounted to 85 Tcf at the beginning of 2021 .
Total proven coal reserves in Kazakhstan, according to BP, were estimated at 25 605 million tons in 2020 . According to Advanced Energy Technologies calculations, the potential for coalmine methane utilization, according to a methodology based on methane emissions from coal mining  and its reserves in 2018 from , amounted to 256-640 Bcm.
Kazakhstan also has substantial shale gas reserves, unproved technically recoverable reserves of which were estimated at 27.5Tcf in 2014 , tight (shale) oil reserves amounted to 10.6 billion barrels . Kerogen oil resources were estimated at 2,837 million barrels in 2008, extra heavy oil – 42 009 million barrels [10,11].
Due to its geographical position Kazakhstan does not have a large variety of reserves of renewable energy sources. On its vast territory only solar and wind resources are well represented. A selection of basic indicators of this type of resource is presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Renewable energy resources of Kazakhstan
|Value||3.8–4.5||6.0-7.0||no data||79.3||1.3||no data||no data|
|Unit||kWh/m2/day||m/s||-||% of land area||% of land area||-||-|
*for the majority of the territory of the country
The level of global horizontal radiation for the majority of the country is 3.8-4.5 kWh/m2/day , and in the south it can reach a maximum level of 4.5-4.6 kWh/m2/day .
The distribution of wind resources is as follows: for the majority of the country the wind speed is 6.0-7.0 m/s, and in the south of the country between Yuzho-Kazakhstanskaya and Kyzyloroda regions it can reach a maximum level of 8.0 m/s at an altitude of 50 metres .
According to data for 2020, 79.3% of the territory of the country is occupied by agricultural land, the area of which has been slightly decreasing during the last half-century ; at the same time 1.3% of the territory of the country was forested .
According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2022, total primary energy consumption in Kazakhstan in 2021 was 2.85 exajoules, about 54.7% of which was coal, 21.1% – oil, 19.3% – natural gas, 3.2% – hydroenergy, 1% – other renewables .
Using the data from [3,6], we calculated GDP per unit of primary energy use in Kazakhstan in 2020 makes $6.4 taking into account PPP in 2011 prices per unit of energy expended (the equivalent of energy contained in one kg of oil equivalent/$ PPP per kg of oil equivalent), which is significantly lower than the world average level of GDP energy efficiency.
Oil production between 2001 and 2017 grew rapidly, then it slowed down and in 2017 amounted to 1880 thousand barrels/day, increasing again to 1966 barrels/day in 2019 . The volume of oil consumption in the country between 2001 and 2019 remained practically unchanged (Figure 2), and in 2019 amounted to 321 thousand barrels/day .
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Dec 2021) / www.eia.gov
Figure 2. The production and consumption of fossil fuels in Kazakhstan (left – coal, in the center – gas, right – oil)
BP shows lower figures of oil consumption in Kazakhstan in 2021 – 327 thousand barrels/day, and oil production 1811 thousand barrels/day . Despite the presence of small imports Kazakhstan fully meets the country's demand for fossil fuels and has a huge export potential.
Oil exports from Kazakhstan in 2018 amounted to 1.531 million barrels/day , and the main importers were the OECD countries .
The production of natural gas in the country between 2003 and 2019 grew rapidly, reaching the peak of 911 Bcf in 2019. The consumption of natural gas did not exceed the level of 550 Bcf between 2001 and 2019, and by 2019 amounted to 514 Bcf . According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2022 , gas production in 2021 was 32 billion m3, consumption – 15.1 billion m3. Natural gas exports in 2019 were at the level of 16.4 billion m3 . Coal consumption and production in the country since 2001 has decreased and in 2019 amounted to 87.9 million short tons, and 115.47 million short tons, respectively . According to BP, in 2021 coal consumption amounted to 1.56 exajoules, while production was 2.09 exajoules .
Kazakhstan mainly uses fossil fuel resources for the production of electricity (Fig. 3).
|Figure 3. Electricity production in Kazakhstan|
In 2019, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the country produced 102.30 TWh of electricity, where fossil fuels accounted for 88.9%, hydropower - 9.6%, renewables - 1.5% (Fig. 6).
Kazakhstan’s position in the comparative diagram of energy index is shown in Fig. 4.
Kazakhstan is at the top of the list of countries in terms of production/consumption of oil, gas and coal, ranging from high to low values.
1. Crude oil proved reserves, 2021 / International Energy Statistic/Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021)*98
2. Natural gas proved reserves 2021 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *99
3. Total recoverable coal reserves 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *81
4. Combination production-consumption for Crude oil 2018 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *219
5. Combination production-consumption for Natural gas 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *123
6. Combination production-consumption for Coal 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *128
7. Electricity – from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity), 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency *170
8. GDP per unit of energy use (PPP per unit of oil equivalent), 2020 *66
Primary energy consumption - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021/BP;GDP (purchasing power parity) - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency
9. Energy use (primary energy use of oil equivalent per capita) 2020 *127
Primary energy consumption – BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021; Population - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021*66
10. The Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report (EAPI) 2017 / Rankings / Reports / World Economic Forum
11. Electric power consumption (kWh per capita), 2016 *217
Electricity Consumption - The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency; Population - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021
12. Combination of electricity production-consumption (kWh)/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *216
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
Figure 4. Energy indices of Kazakhstan
In another rating in 2017, the list of countries for the production of electricity from renewable sources (excluding hydropower), Kazakhstan was 154th out of 170 countries selected for consideration, behind the majority of European countries.
In 2020, Kazakhstan was 55th out of 66 countries ranked by the ratio of GDP per unit of energy use, while in terms of energy consumption per capita the country is 21st in the world.
In terms of electricity consumption per capita, the country is 55th in the world; similarly, for the indicator of combination of electricity production-consumption, Kazakhstan is 48th in the ranked list of 216 countries.
A territorial map of the distribution of the largest infrastructure projects of the fossil fuel sector and electricity in Kazakhstan is shown in Figure 5.
In the total potential of fossil energy resources, coal plays the predominant role – 74.1%, oil accounts for 16.9%, gas – 9% (Figure 5).
Kazakhstan’s leading gas field is Kashagan, an offshore field and one of the largest in the world discovered in recent years (opened in 2000). The field is located in the northwest of the Caspian Sea near the city of Atyrau. The total amount of recoverable resources is estimated at 13,000 million barrels of light oil, with vast reserves of natural gas . Since the discovery, great hopes have been placed on this field, especially since a multinational consortium including Kaz Munay Gas, Eni, Exxon Mobil , Shell and Total 16.81% each, Conoco Phillips 8.40% and INPEX 7.56% began its development. Oil production is managed by a special company created by a consortium – North Caspian Operating Company B.V. . However, the developers had to face colossal problems associated with the harsh climatic conditions of the region – a significant temperature drop, difficult ice conditions in the winter months, high levels of hydrogen sulphide in the oil, a large depth of oil-bearing formation and many others. In total, about 55 billion US dollars were invested in the project , which made it one of the most expensive in the region. Nevertheless, the project was put into commercial operation in the second half of 2016 and in 2018 an intermediate peak production level of 300,000 barrels per day was reached ( 8,350 thousand tons were produced in total in 2017). The main amount of accompanying sulphur in the form of sulphur dioxide is injected back to the reservoir, and about 20% is processed into commercially suitable sulphur. Oil is transported via the pipeline of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium to the oil terminal of Novorossiysk on the Black Sea. In addition, part of the oil is transported by sea tankers to the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. As oil production increases, the possibility of transporting oil to China and to Russia via the Atyrau-Samara pipeline is also being considered.
Figure 5. Basic infrastructure facilities of the fossil fuels sector in Kazakhstan
In addition to Kashagan, Kazakhstan has a number of other large oil fields, among which it is necessary to single out the Tengiz field discovered in 1979, in the Atyrau region, with a potential volume of 6,000 million barrels of estimated oil in place and annual production of 450,000 barrels per day  and the Karachaganak oil and gas condensate field, also opened in 1979, the gas production from which according to  was 300.0 Bcf and about 200,000 barrels/day in 2016 .
In addition, Kazakhstan has many deposits of hard-to-recover oil (heavy, highly viscous, paraffin, etc.) – Kenkiyak, Uzen, Karazhabanas and others. Oil production at these fields is carried out via enhanced oil recovery. Thus, widely used methods of steam and heat exposure are being implemented, for example, at the Karazhanbas field (opened in 1974 near the city of Aktau, recoverable reserves – 96.9 million tons, production in 2017 – 2,141 thousand tons) . A significant positive impact on the development of oil production in Kazakhstan has been the Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline. Its first section – Atasu-Alashankou was launched at the end of 2005, the second section – the Kenkiyak-Kumkol was opened at the end of 2009, and in 2017 over 12 million tons of oil was shipped to China via this pipeline .
The total installed capacity of Kazakh refineries was 345.1 thousand barrels/day in 2016 . The main refinery – Pavlodar, Kaz Munay Gas has an installed capacity of 162 000 bbl/day  (Fig.5). Crude oil and petroleum products are exported via the oil terminal in Aktau, and transported within the country via pipelines with a total length of 11,313 km and 1,095 km, respectively (Fig. 5); also there are several large storages, located mainly at refineries.
The gas system is represented by 5 large gas processing plants, as well as 3 gas storage facilities, the largest of which is Bozoi Natural Gas Storage with a storage capacity of 4,000,000 thousand m3 . Transportation of gas and condensate within the country is carried out via a network of pipelines, with a total length of 15,256 km and 658 km, respectively (Fig. 5).
The map of the territorial distribution of Kazakhstan’s largest infrastructure facilities for electricity generation is presented in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Electricity production, coal, uranium and renewable energy in Kazakhstan
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the share of fossil resources in electricity production in Kazakhstan in 2019 was 88.9% (Figure 6).
The main coal mine basins are concentrated in the central part of the country, the largest is Ekibastuz Coal Mine, which produced about 95 million tons in 2006 . Uranium mines are mainly concentrated in the south of the country (Figure 6). One of the leading uranium mine basins is the Chu-Sarysu complex, consisting of 8 mines, the production of which in 2016 amounted to 13,430 tU/year .
The country has a significant number of stations for the production of electricity from fossil fuels, including 2 gas, 12 coal, one oil power plant, one combined type power plant with another one under construction, each with a capacity of over 200 MW (Fig.6). The largest power plants in Kazakhstan are: MAEK gas power plant with a capacity of 625 MW , Kashagan oil power plant, with an installed capacity of 238 MW , Ekibastuz GRES-1 coal power plant with an installed capacity of 4000 MW, Zhambyl combined type power plant – with an installed capacity of 1 230 MW [31.32].
The share of hydropower in the production of electricity is 9.6% (Fig.6). There are six large hydro power plants in the country; the largest is Shulbinskaya, with an installed capacity of 702 MW .
As noted above, renewable energy (excluding hydroenergy) accounted for 1.5% of total electricity generation. Nevertheless, the country has sufficient potential for generating electricity using photovoltaics – the level of global horizontal irradiation n some areas of the country can reach 4.6 kWh/m2 . As a result, in the south of the country, there are 3 solar PV power plants, the largest – Burnoye Solar I, with an installed capacity of 50 MW . In addition, there is the Ereymentau wind farm, with a capacity of 45 MW . Bioenergy does not play a decisive role in the production of electricity and is represented by several biogas plants; the leader is Shymkent, with a capacity of 0.5 MW .
The set of indices reflecting the position of Kazakhstan among other countries in the field of education and innovation can be seen in Figure 7.
Kazakhstan is 7th out of 132 countries considered in the ranking of countries of the Global Innovation Index 2021 (see diagram), moving up twelve ranking positions.
According to the number of patents granted to Kazakh residents, both inside the country and abroad, the country ranks 37th in the world, behind a number of European countries, but nonetheless shows a figure higher than the world average. However, by the number of patents in force, the country is below the world average – 65th place, which largely characterizes the country's patent attractiveness.
1. The Global Innovation Index 2021, Rankings / Knowledge / World Intellectual Property Organization / Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2021):
Energizing the World with Innovation. Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva *132
2. Patent Grants 2011-2020, resident & abroad / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization *185
3.Patents in Force 2020 / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization *109
4. QS World University Rankings 2022 *97
5. SCImago Country Rankings (1996-2020) / Country rankings / SCImago, (n.d.). SIR-SCImago Journal & Country Rank [Portal]. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 *240
6. Internet users in 2018 / The World Factbook / Central Intelligence Agency *229
7. Internet users in 2018 (% Population) / The World Factbook / Central Intelligence Agency *229
8. Government expenditure on education, total (% of GDP), 2019 / United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
License: CCBY-4.0 / Data as of September 2021*177
9. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP), 2018 / UNESCO Institute for Statistics. License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *119
10. Scientific and technical journal articles, 2018 / National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *197
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
Figure 7. The indices of education and innovation in Kazakhstan
In terms of government expenditure on education as a percentage of the country's GDP, the country demonstrates a very low result - 133th out of 177 countries selected for consideration, which has nevertheless enabled Kazakh 10 universities to enter the QS University Rating.
Kazakhstan is well positioned when considering the number of publications of specialists in scientific and technological journal and patent activities. The country is 73rd out of 240 participating countries in the Scimago ranking, and in Scientific and Technical Journal Activities it is ranked 61st out of 197 countries. The country is also among the leaders in the region in terms of the number of Internet users.
Universities of Kazakhstan, such as Almaty University of Power Engineering and Telecommunications, Pavlodar state university named after S.Toraigyrov, Satbayev Kazakh National Technical University, and D. Serikbayev East Kazakhstan State Technical University, train specialists in various fields of energy, including Petroleum Engineering, Electrical Power Engineering and Thermal Engineering, Geology and Exploration of Mineral Deposits, etc.
Research and development the field of synthetic fuel productionis is carried out by the Institute of Cumbustion Problems, D.V. Sokolsky Institute of Organic Catalysis and Electrochemistry.
Kazakh National Research Technocal University, named after K.I. Satpayev, patent their inventions, and KazMunaiGas LLP, Kazakh-British Technical University (KBTU) publish their research in the field of unconventional oil. Another important patenting area is coalbed methane; here leaders in patenting are the Institute of Comprehensive Exploration of Mineral Resources, LLP, Reserach Institute of Comprehensive Exploration of Mineral Resources, JSC. Research and development in this field is carried out by Kazakh-British Technical University (KBTU) and Auezov South Kazakhstan State University.
PetroKazakhstan Kumkol Resources JSC is actively engaged in research in thе field of hydrocarbon production from reservoirs with low permeability.
Kazakh National research Technical University, named after K.I. Satpayev, and Nazarbayev University conduct research in the field of wind power.
The diagram of environmental indices presented in Figure 8 to some extent reflects the ecological situation in the country, which in the case of Kazakhstan is quite negative.
First of all, the country demonstrates a relatively high level of CO2 emissions in general, and per capita. It is also necessary to note the high level of methane emissions in the country. Kazakhstan is at the last place in the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2022, which consists of 60 positions and includes 61 countries responsible for more than 90% of global energy-related CO2 emissions.
1. CO2 total emission by countries 2020 / European Commission / Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)*208
2. CO2 per capita emission 2020/European Commission/Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) *208
3. Forest area 2020 (% of land area) / The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
4. Forest area change 2010-2020 (1000 ha/year) / The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
5. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2020 / Rankings / Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Yale University *180
6. Annual freshwater withdrawals (m3 per capita), 2017 *179
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion m3), 2017 – Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data. /License: CC BY-4.0;
Population – United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019).
World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021
7. The National Footprint Accounts 2017 (Biocapacity Credit / Deficit) / Global Footprint Network *188
8. Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent), 2018 / Data for up to 1990 are sourced from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Data from 1990 are CAIT data: Climate Watch. 2020. GHG Emissions. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Available at: License : Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) *191
9. The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2022 / Overall Results / Jan Burck, Thea Uhlich, Christoph Bals, Niklas Höhne, Leonardo Nascimento /
Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network *60
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
Figure 8. Environmental Indices of Kazakhstan
In terms of forest area as a percentage of the country, Kazakhstan was 211th in 2020 out of 234 countries. In contrast, the trend associated with its change from 2010-2020 looks positive and according to this indicator the country is 11th in the world. Also, it has an average score in the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2020, which focuses primarily on the environmental activities of national governments, aimed at reducing the negative impact of the environment, and rational use of natural resources. In this ranking, the country is in 85th out of 180 participating countries.
However, according to the Environmental Vulnerability Index, which is based on years of observations and 50 indicators that include, for example, changing climatic characteristics or the quality of water resources, waste volumes, oil spills and other hazardous substances, etc. Kazakhstan is 14th out of 234 countries, and is characterized as «at risk». Finally, it is worth mentioning that according to the Ecological Footprint Atlas rating, Kazakhstan is among a number of ecological debtors.
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 Kazakhstan / Select Country / U.S. Energy Information Administration (June 7, 2019) / www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php
 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019 - 2021 (PDF) / BP / www.bp.com
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 Wind Map / Global Wind Atlas 2.0, a free, web-based application developed, owned and operated by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in partnership with the World Bank Group, utilizing data provided by Vortex, with funding provided by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). For additional information: globalwindatlas.info
 Agricultural land (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 Forest area (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Jan 2020) / www.eia.gov/beta/international/
 Kazakhstan / Statistics / © OECD / IEA 2018, IEA Publishing, Licence: www.iea.org/t&c / International Energy Agency / www.iea.org
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 Home / NCOC / www.ncoc.kz/en/default.aspx
 Tengiz Field / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tengiz_Field
 Karachaganak Field / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karachaganak_Field
 Of the deposit/joint-stock company Karazhanbasmunai / www.kbm.kz
 Kazakhstan-China Pipeline/ www.kcp.kz
 OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin 2017 ( PDF) / Publications / Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) / www.opec.org
 List of oil refineries / Kazakhstan / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oil_refineries
 Gas Storage / Intergas Central Asia / www.intergas.kz
 Kazakhstan and coal / Source Watch / www.sourcewatch.org
 Uranium and Nuclear Power in Kazakhstan (Updated June 2018) / Information Library / World Nuclear Association / www.world-nuclear.org
 МАЭК Казатомпром / maek.kz
 Kashagan power generation plant, Kazakhstan / Reference Projects / Tekfen Construction / www.tekfeninsaat.com.tr
 Ekibastuz GRES-1 / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekibastuz_GRES-1
 Zhambyl (Kazakhstan ) ГРЭС / B2B Global / bbgl.ru
 Shulbinskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shulbinsk_Hydroelectric_Power_Plant
 Burnoye Solar-1 / bs-1.kz/index.php
 Wind Park Ereymentau / Kazakhstan / Projects / Wind Parks of Ukraine / wpu.com.ua
 SKr first biogas plant in Central Asia/November 17, 2017/CAPITAL / kapital.kz
The sources of charts and curves are specified under the images.
For more information about the energy industry in Kazakhstan see here