The Czech Republic is a state in Central Europe. Its capital city is Prague . The country borders Austria (to the south), Germany (to the west), Slovakia (to the east) and Poland (to the north). The Czech Republic, which in terms of size is placed 115th in the world, is home to more than 10.6 million people as of 2018. In terms of population density the country places 92nd in the world, from 255 countries considered [2,3].
The Czech Republic is a parliamentary republic, and the official language is Czech. The administrative map of the country is divided into 13 regions . The country's economy is based on the export of goods; the main industry is automotive, which constitutes around 80% of GDP. The Czech Republic demonstrates one of the lowest unemployment rates in the EU and has a developed market economy, which is reflected in Figure 1. For the majority of indices, the country places higher than the world average (ie. in the top half of the graph), and for 7 indices in the top quarter of the graph, among the 25% highest ranked countries in the world included in the rating.
Since the 1990s, despite having undergone a slight decline in 2008, the Czech Republic has experienced sustained GDP growth in purchasing power parity, both in general and per capita [4,5]. GDP at purchasing power parity increased from $351.9 billion in 2015 to $375.9 billion (49th in the world) in 2017 . The country’s GDP at purchasing power parity per capita is lower (57th in the world in 2017), but has also been demonstrating positive dynamics: from $33,400 in 2015 to $35,500 in 2017 . The level of inflation changed from 0.7% in 2016 to 2.4% in 2017; in terms of this indicator the country was 118th in the world (ranked by levels of inflation, low to high) ; by the level of market value of publicly traded shares in 2016, the country ranked 47th in the world, behind Poland and other EU countries. According to The Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018 presented by the World Economic Forum, the Czech Republic was 31st (out of a total of 137 countries), ahead of a large number of EU countries, including Spain, Italy and Poland. This rating reflects the effectiveness of the use of the country’s resources for sustainable development. In addition to a number of economic indicators, this index also takes into account such variables as education, health, level of innovation, etc.
In the list of 151 countries that exported high-tech products in 2015-2016, the Czech Republic was 21st, slightly behind Austria. According to the Index of Economic Freedom, which is based on freedom of business, freedom from government intervention, property protection, and freedom from corruption, the country was considered “mostly free”, and placed 24th, out of 180 countries. In terms of gold reserves and foreign exchange reserves the Czech Republic was 15th in the world.
According to the indicator for the average GDP growth in percentage over the last 10 years, the country was below the world average – 145th out of 200 countries as of 2017. In terms of public debt, calculated as a percentage of the country's GDP, in 2017 the Czech Republic was ranked 50th out of 202 countries considered, next to Denmark and Norway. Despite the country's high level of GDP per capita, the latter two indices partially reflect a number of negative trends in the Czech economy, related to a rapidly ageing population, and lack of skilled personnel.
Detailed information about the economic development of the Czech Republic is available here.
The Czech Republic has no significant reserves of fossil resources (Table. 1). According to proven reserves of oil and natural gas, the country is ranked 85th and 93th in the world, respectively . According to data for 2018, in terms of tons of oil equivalent, proved coal reserves amounted to 99.7%, natural gas – 0.19%, oil – 0.11% (Figure 5). The most valuable resource of the country is coal; according to BP its reserves at the end of 2018 amounted to 2 657 million tons. For comparison Poland has 26 479 million tons of proven coal reserves.
Table 1. Fossil energy resources of the Czech Republic
|Resource /Explanations||Crude oil||Natural gas||Coal||Shale Gas||Tight Oil||Coalmine methane|
|Value||15||3.964||2 657||-||-||1.8 - 7.8|
|Unit||million bbl||billion cubic meter||million tonnes||-||-||bcm|
According to , at the beginning of 2018, oil reserves in the Czech Republic were estimated at 15 million barrels, with natural gas reserves at 3.964 bcm. According to Advanced Energy Technologies calculations, the potential for coal mine methane utilization - according to a methodology based on methane emissions  and coal reserves  - amounted to around 1.8 - 7.8 bcm. The Czech Republic, due to its geographical location, has a variety of reserves of renewable energy sources.
A selection of basic indicators of this type of resource is presented in Table 2.
Technically exploitable hydropower capability in the Czech Republic amounted to 3 978 GWh/year. For comparison, this is around 7 times less than the economically affordable hydro potential of Austria . The level of global horizontal radiation for the majority of the country is between 3.0-3.1 kWh/m2/day, and in Southern and Northern Moravia this can exceed the level of 3.1 kWh/m2/day , which is comparable to Denmark, Southern Sweden, and Belgium.
Table 2.Renewable energy resources of the Czech Republic
|Value||3.0-3.1||5.5-6.5||3 978||45.2||34.6||no data||351|
|Unit||kWh/m2/day||m/s||GWh/year||% of land area||% of land area||-||kg per capita|
*for most of the territory of the country
**economically exploitable potential
The distribution of wind resources is as follows: for the majority of the country the wind speed does not exceed 5.5-6.5 m/s, although in the east of the country and in Northern Moravia, this figure may exceed 7.0 m/s at a height of 50 meters . These figures indicate the potential for the development of wind energy in the power industry of the Czech Republic, which would allow it to compete with other traditional local renewable technologies, principally bio energy.
According to data for 2016, 45.2% of the territory of the country is occupied by agricultural land, the area of which has been decreasing over the last fifty years ; 34.6% of the territory of the country was forested, which, unlike the previous indicator, is showing a slight increase . According to Eurostat, in terms of municipal waste generation, the Czech Republic produced 351 kg per capita in 2018, placing it ahead of, for example, Poland at 329 kg per capita, but behind Slovenia at 486 kg per capita . This resource is a valuable raw material for recycling or energy production, the technologies of which have reached a high level of development in the Czech Republic.
A detailed list of sites and special reports on the Czech Republic energy resources can be found here.
According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019, total primary energy consumption in the Czech Republic in 2018 was 42.1 million tons of oil equivalent, around 37.3% of which was coal, 25.2% – oil, 16.4% – natural gas, 16.2% – nuclear energy, 4% – other renewables, and 1% – hydro energy . Using the data from [3,6] we calculated GDP per unit of primary energy use in the Czech Republic in 2017 was $9, taking into account PPP in 2011 prices per unit of energy expended (the equivalent of energy contained in one kg of oil equivalent/$ PPP per kg of oil equivalent), which corresponds to the world average level of GDP energy efficiency. Oil production between 2001 and 2017 remained practically unchanged (Figure 2), and in 2017 amounted to 19.8 thousand barrels/day . At the same time consumption grew, having undergone a slight decline between 2008 and 2013, before rising again, and by 2017 amounted to 214 thousand barrels/day . According to the BP survey, the level of oil consumption in the Czech Republic in 2018 was 222 thousand barrels/day .
In 2018, the main contribution to Total Primary Energy Production (TPES) of the Czech Republic – almost 36% – was provided by domestic coal production, while the total final oil consumption in the country amounted to almost 7 740 ktoe . In 2017, oil imports to the Czech Republic were estimated at 155,900 barrels/day . The production of natural gas in the country between 2001 and 2017 did not exceed the level of 341 Bcf, and in 2017 it was 308 Bcf . According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019  gas consumption in the country in 2018 was 8 billion m3.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Jan 2020) / www.eia.gov
Figure 2. The Production and consumption of fossil fuels in the Czech Republic (coal – left, gas – in the center, oil – right)
According to the International Energy Agency, the total final natural gas consumption in the country amounted to 6 819 ktoe in 2018 . In 2017 the Czech Republic imported about 8.891 Bcm of natural gas . Coal production and consumption in the country has been gradually decreasing since 2001, and in 2017 amounted to 49.30 million short tons and 49.07 million short tons, respectively . According to ВР, in 2018, coal consumption amounted to 15.7 million tons of oil equivalent, and production totalled 14.6 million tons of oil equivalent . The Czech Republic uses fossil fuels and nuclear power for the production of electricity; however, it is worth noting a general decrease in the level of electricity consumption in the country in the last 5-7 years (Fig. 3). In 2017 the country produced 81.02 TWh of electricity, where fossil fuels constituted 55.4%, nuclear power — 33.1%, hydro energy — 1.8% and other renewable energy — 9.7% (Fig.6).
Due to the absence of significant oil and gas reserves, the Czech Republic is at the bottom of the list of countries in terms of production/consumption of oil and gas, ranging from high to low values. However in terms of coal reserves and the production/consumption ratio, the positioning of the country looks quite convincing.
In another rating from 2015, listing country’s production of electricity from renewable sources (excluding hydropower), the Czech Republic was 47th out of 166 countries selected for consideration
1. Crude oil proved reserves, 2017/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *93
2. Natural gas proved reserves, 2017/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *99
3. Total recoverable coal reserves, 2015/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *81
4. Combination production-consumption for Crude oil, 2015/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *214
5. Combination production-consumption for Natural gas, 2015/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *111
6. Combination production-consumption for Coal, 2015/International Energy Statistic/Geography/U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) *127
7. Electricity – from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity), 2015/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *166
8. GDP per unit of energy use (PPP per unit of oil equivalent), 2017; Primary energy consumption - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018/BP;
GDP (purchasing power parity) - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *66
9. Energy use (primary energy use of oil equivalent per capita), 2017; Primary energy consumption - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018/BP; Population -
World Population Prospects/United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017), World Population Prospect: The 2017 Revision,
Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248/ *66
10. The Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report (EAPI) 2017, Rankings/Reports/World Economic Forum *127
11. Electric power consumption (kWh per capita), 2015-2016; Electricity Consumption - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency; Population -
World Population Prospects/United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017), World Population Prospect:
The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248/ *212
12. Combination of electricity production-consumption (kWh), 2015-2016/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *216
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
|Figure 4. Energy indices of the Czech Republic|
In 2017 the Czech Republic placed 40th out of 66 countries ranked by the ratio of GDP per unit of energy use in 2016, while in terms of energy consumption per capita the country is 24th in the world, ahead of Norway and Poland.
In terms of electricity consumption per capita, the country is 46th in the world; however, for the indicator of combination of electricity production-consumption, the Czech Republic is 25th in the ranked list of 216 countries, ahead of Norway and Poland.
Detailed information about the energy balance of the Czech Republic is available here.
A territorial map showing the distribution of the largest infrastructure projects of the fossil-fuel sector and electricity in the Czech Republic is shown in Figure 5.
As mentioned earlier, coal plays the predominant role in the total potential of fossil energy resources – 99.7%, natural gas amounts to 0.19%, and oil – 0.11% (Figure 5). Nastup Tusimice & Bilina, Severočeskédoly is considered to be the richest coal mine and has a production level of 21 million tons per year . Dambořice is considered to be one of the leading oil fields, with production levels at 4700 bpd . Oil is stored in a large number of storage facilities, the largest of which is Nelahozeves, Mero ČR Oil Storage Terminal, which is able to accommodate about 1.550.000 m3 . There are three oil refineries, the largest Litvinov, has an installed capacity of 120.000 bpd ; transportation of oil and petroleum products is carried out via pipelines with a total length of 536 km and 94 km (Fig. 5).
Figure 5. Basic infrastructure facilities of the fossil fuel sector in the Czech Republic
The gas infrastructure is represented by a network of pipelines with a total length of 7160 km, connecting six main compressor stations, as well as nine gas storage facilities (Fig.5).
The map of the territorial distribution of the Czech Republic’s largest infrastructure facilities for electricity generation is presented in Figure 6.
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the share of fossil fuels in energy production in the Czech Republic in 2017 was 55.4% (Fig.6). The country has a significant number of stations for the production of electricity from hydrocarbons, including two nuclear power plants, one combined power, and thirteen coal power plants with a capacity of over 100 MW (Fig.6).
The largest power plants in the country are: the coal power plant complex Prunerov I-II, with an installed capacity of 1190 MW ; Temelin nuclear power plant, with an installed capacity of 2160 MW ; and Hodonin Combined Power Plant, with an installed capacity of 105 MW . Coal gasification is carried out at Vresova IGCC, with an installed capacity of 400 MW .
The share of hydropower in electricity production was 1.8%; this sector is represented by both pumped-storage power plants and large and small hydropower plants (Fig.6). The largest pumped storage power plant is Dlouhe Strane, with an installed capacity of 650 MW, and the largest hydropower station is Orlik, with a capacity of 364 MW [24,25]. In 2016 the Czech Republic registered more than 1000 small-scale hydropower stations, with a total installed capacity of 333.8 MW (Fig.6).
The map of the territorial distribution of the largest infrastructure facilities of renewable energy in the Czech Republic is presented in Figure 7.
Figure 7. Renewable energy in in the Czech Republic
As noted above, renewable energy (excluding hydroenergy) in 2017 was 7.75 TWh (Fig.7).
In zones of high wind activity there are 11 large wind parks, with a capacity of more than 7 MWth each. The current installed capacity of wind power in The Czech Republic is 278 MW ; the largest is Margonin Wind Farm, with a capacity of 42 MW . As noted above, the level of global horizontal solar irradiation in some areas of the country can reach 3.1 kWh/m2 , and as a result there are a number of solar power plants. The largest photovoltaic solar station is Ralsko Ra-1, with a capacity of 38.3 MW . The share of bioenergy in electricity production was 46% (Fig.7). There are biogas enterprises in the country, as well as facilities for processing municipal waste, and the production of biodiesel, bioethanol, pellets, etc. (Fig.7). The Czech Republic’s largest enterprises for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol are: Usti nad Labem, with a capacity of 100 000 t/year; and Dobrovice, Tereos TTD Bioethanol Plant, with a capacity of 80 000 t/year [29,30]. One of the main biogas production enterprises in the country is Prague WWT, with an installed capacity of 5.4 MW .
Among other bioenergy enterprises, it is worth mentioning Hodonin Biomass power plant, which has an installed capacity of 30 MWe ; and Kozomin Biomass Gasification Plant, with an installed capacity of 7 MWth . The largest Czech Republic enterprise using modern technology is Paskov, Mayr Melnh of Holz Wood Pellet Plant, which can produce around 85 000 tons of pellets annually .
The leader in the generation of electricity from municipal waste is located in Brno, and can process about 360 000 tons annually . The Czech Republic also develops hydrogen energy, which, amongst other uses, can provide an energy source for vehicles. There is a hydrogen filling station in Central Bohemia with a storage capacity of 125 kg .
The set of indices reflecting the position of the Czech Republic in the field of education and innovation can be seen in Figure 8. According to the indices presented, the Czech Republic demonstrates a high level of innovation activity and education – all indices are above the world average, with some metrics far exceeding this.
The Czech Republic placed 27th out of 126 countries considered in the ranking of countries of the Global Innovation Index 2018 (see diagram), having lost three ranking positions.
1. The Global Innovation Index 2018, Rankings/Knowledge/World Intellectual Property Organization/Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2018): Energizing the World with Innovation.
Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva *126
2. Patent Grants 2007-2016, resident & abroad / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization / www.wipo.int/portal/en/ *175
3. Patents in Force 2016 / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization / www.wipo.int/portal/en/ *89
4. QS World University Rankings 2018 /www.topuniversities.com *84
5. SCImago Country Rankings (1996-2017)/Country rankings/SCImago, (n.d.). SJR—SCImago Journal & Country Rank [Portal]. Retrieved Aug 2018, from www.scimagojr.com *239
6. Internet users in 2016/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *224
7. Internet users in 2016 (% Population); Internet users in 2016 - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency; Population - World Population Prospects/United Nations,
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017), World Population Prospect: The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No.
8. Government expenditure on education, total (% of GDP), 2016/United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *169
9. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP), 2015 / UNESCO Institute for Statistics. License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *120
10. Scientific and technical journal articles, 2016 / National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *196
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
|Figure 8. The indices of education and innovation in the Czech Republic|
According to the number of patents granted to Czech nationals, both domestically and abroad, the country ranks 36th in the world, behind a number of European countries, but nonetheless higher than the world average. Similarly, by the number of valid patents, the country is above the world average –29th place, indicating the country's favorable conditions for innovation. In terms of government expenditure on education as a percentage of the country's GDP, the country demonstrates a result below the world average – 102nd out of 169 countries selected for consideration; nevertheless ﬁve Czech universities were entered into the QS University Rating.
The Czech Republic is very well positioned when considering the number of publications of specialists in scientific and technological journals and patent activities. The country is 27th out of 239 participating countries in the Scimago ranking, and in Scientific and Technical Journal Activities it is ranked 23rd out of 196 countries. The country is also among the leaders in the region in terms of the number of Internet users and is 23rd in terms of government expenditure in research and development. Czech Universities, such as Brno University of Technology, the Czech Technical University in Prague, and the Technical University of Ostrava train specialists in various fields of energy, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Nuclear Science, etc. In the field of synthetic fuel production the main research institutes are the Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals and Brno University of Technology.
In the field of unconventional oil the leading patent holder is Stone Wall S.R.O., and leaders by the number of publications are Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, the Institute of Chemical Technology, and Masaryk University. Another important area for the Czech Republic, rich in coal, is coalbed methane; here leaders by the number of publications are the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, and the Institute of Geonics of the CAS. In the field of hydrocarbon production from reservoirs with low permeability, research is being conducted at the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics and Charles University. The Czech Academy of Sciences conducts research in the field of gas hydrates. The leading patent holders in the ﬁeld of bioenergy are Ceska Hlava s.r.o., Biotech Progress AS. Research is conducted by Charles University and the Institute of Microbiology of the ASCR.
A large number of companies patent technical solutions in the field of energy production from renewable sources. In the field of solar energy, Hesco s.r.o., Nee Innovations s.r.o. are prominent. Leading research organizations in this field are Brno University of Technology and the Czech Technical University. Among the universities conducting research in the field of wind energy, we should highlight the VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, and the Czech Technical University.
The diagram of environmental indices presented in Figure 9 to some extent reflects the ecological situation in the country.
The Czech Republic is located at the bottom of the environmental chart, primarily due to high CO2 emissions, in general and per capita.
1. CO2 total emission by countries 2016 / European Commission/Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) *208
2. CO2 per capita emission 2016/European Commission/Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) *208
3. Forest area 2015 (% of land area)/The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015/Forestry Statistics/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
4. Forest area change 2010-2015 (ha/year)/The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015/Forestry Statistics/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
5. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2018, Rankings/Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy/Yale University*180
6. The Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) 2005/South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), United National Environment Programme (UNEP) *234
7. The National Footprint Accounts 2018 edition (Data Year 2014) (Biocapacity Reserve/Deficit)/building on World Development Indicators, The World Bank (2016); U.N. Food and
Agriculture Organization/Open Data Platform /Tools and Resources/Global Footprint Network *188
8. Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent), 2012/European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL).
Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR).License: CC BY-4.0/Data/The World Bank *203
9. The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2018, Overall Results/Jan Burck, Franziska Marten, Christoph Bals, NiklasHöhne/Germanwatch,Climate Action Network International,
New Climate Institute/https://germanwatch.org/en *56
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
|Figure 9. Environmental Indices of the Czech Republic|
The high level of methane emissions in the country should also be noted.
The Czech Republic is 43rd in the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2018, which includes the 56 countries responsible for more than 90% of global energy-related CO2 emissions. In terms of forest area as a percentage of the country, in 2015 the Czech Republic was 100th out of 234 countries. However, the trend associated with its change from 2010-2015 looks positive and according to this indicator the country is 46th in the world. The country is very well positioned in the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2018, which focuses primarily on the environmental activities of national governments, aimed at reducing the negative impact of the environment, and rational use of natural resources. In this ranking, the country is 33rd out of 180 participating countries, behind a number of European countries. However, according to the Environmental Vulnerability Index, which is based on years of observations and 50 indicators that include, for example, changing climatic characteristics or the quality of water resources, waste volumes, oil spills and other hazardous substances, etc., the Czech Republic placed 138th out of 234 countries, and is characterized as “vulnerable”. Finally, it is worth mentioning that according to the Ecological Footprint Atlas rating, the Czech Republic is among a number of ecological debtors.
Detailed information on the energy complex of the Czech Republic see the attached link library by clicking here.
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 Czechia / The world factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency / www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ez.html
 GDP, PPP (constant 2011 international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019 (PDF) / BP / www.bp.com
 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 2, Energy, Fugitive Emissions (PDF) / The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) / www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp
 World Energy Resources: Hydro World Energy Council / 2013 / Publications / World Energy Council / www.worldenergy.org
 Solar resource data obtained from the Global Solar Atlas, owned by the World Bank Group and provided by Solargis / Global Solar Atlas / globalsolaratlas.info
 The Czech Republic Wind Map / Global Wind Atlas 2.0, a free, web-based application developed, owned and operated by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in partnership with the World Bank Group, utilizing data provided by Vortex, with funding provided by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). For additional information: globalwindatlas.info
 Agricultural land (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 Forest area (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 Municipal waste statistics Updated / 19 July 2018 / Full list / Statistics Explained / Eurostat / ec.europa.eu
 International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Aug 2018) / www.eia.gov/beta/international/
 The Czech Republic / Statistics / © OECD / IEA 2018, IEA Publishing, Licence: www.iea.org/t&c / International Energy Agency / www.iea.org
 The Czech Republic / Country Profiles / Euracoal / euracoal.eu
 Dambořice oil field / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dambo%C5%99ice_oil_field
 The Central Crude Oil Tank Farm Nelahozeves / Operation / Mero ČR, a.s. / www.mero.cz/en/
 List of oil refineries / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oil_refineries
 The Prunerov Power Stations /Power Plants and Environment / Cez Group www.cez.cz
 Temelin Nuclear Power Station / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temel%C3%ADn_Nuclear_Power_Station
 The Hodonin Power Station / Power Plants and Environment / Cez Group www.cez.cz
 Recent operating experience and improvement of commercial IGCC (PDF) / August 2013 / Ian Barnes / United States Energy Association / www.usea.org
 Precerpavaci vodni elektrarna Dlouhé stráně / Voda / Vyroba Elektriny / CEZ Group / www.cez.cz/en
 Vodni elektrarna Orlik / Voda / Vyroba Elektriny / CEZ Group / www.cez.cz/en /
 Renewable energy potential in the Czech Republic: Obstacles to achieve it (PDF) / Viktória Pokorná / April 2018 / EUROPEUM Institute for European Policy / www.europeum.org
 Aktuální instalace / Větrné elektrárny v ČR / Česká společnost pro větrnou energii / www.csve.cz
 Ralsko and Mimoň / Solar Power Plants / Power Plants and Environment / CEZ Group / www.cez.cz/en/
 Presentation of the Biodiesel Plant in Usti nad Labem, 2010 (PDF) / Biorafineria SK / www.biorafineria.sk
 Bioetanol (biolih) / Vyrobci biopaliv v tuzemsku / Agris / www.agris.cz
 Ústřední čistírna odpadních vod Pra / Czech Biogas Association / www.czba.cz/en/
 CEZ hits biomass co-firing high / February 9, 2010 / Biofuels International Magazine / biofuels-news.com
 Energeticke Centrumm Kozomin (ECK) / PROVOZUJEME / BOR Biotechnology / www.borbiotechnology.cz
 Třicet českých peletáren hlásí rekord. Dřevních pelet se u nás loni vyrobilo 365 tisíc tun / 1/3/2018 / tzbinfo oze.tzb-info.cz
 Brno - Židenice Incineration Plant / The Czech Republic / Waste-to-energy Plants / Energy / Industry About / www.industryabout.com
 Neratovice Veolia Transport Hydrogen Station / Wikimapia / wikimapia.org
The sources of charts and curves are specified under the images.