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罗马尼亚能源工业
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经济总体状况

罗马尼亚是位于欧洲大陆东南部的一个欧洲国家。南与保加利亚接壤,北与乌克兰接壤,西与匈牙利、塞尔维亚接壤,东与摩尔多瓦接壤,东南濒黑海。罗马尼亚是世界上第 83 位大国,截至 2023 年人口超过 1900 万。就人口密度而言,该国位居世界第 130 位[1,2]。罗马尼亚是半总统制共和国,首都布加勒斯特,罗马尼亚语为官方语言。全国行政地图分为41个县[3]。

Romania
Capital: BucharestDensity: 79.9/km2Currency: Romanian leu (RON)
Official languages:  RomanianLife expectancy at birth: 74.92 yearsGDP (PPP): $828.746 billion (2024 est.)
National Day: 01 DecemberArea: 238,394 km2GDP - per capita (PPP): $43,747 (2024 est.)
Population: 19,051,562 (2023 est.)Coastline: 245 kmInternet country code: .ro

Source: [1,2,3,4,5]

罗马尼亚相对于其他国家的评级位置是根据一系列广泛的经济、能源、创新和教育指数以及反映环境状况的指标确定的。经济指标包括人均GDP、年均GDP增长率、高新技术出口等。能源指数列表包括石油、天然气和煤炭的探明储量、产耗比以及能源使用量等。每个指数都有一个包含的成员国排名列表。由于每个指数的每个评级的国家数量不同,因此将感兴趣的国家的定位显示在一个特殊的图表上,其中纵轴是从0到1的统一相对刻度,而横轴表示各个指数以及与下面给出的描述相关的相应编号。
因此,在这样一个相对的“0-1”图中,该国家的位置按照其在原始评级列表中的位置成比例地用点来标记。如果该国在所选指标方面处于领先地位,则将在相关图表“0-1”的上部绿色区域中标记为接近 1,如果该国在评级列表中属于局外人,则将标记为接近 1图表下方红色区域“0-1”等。

罗马尼亚经济指数列表排名:

   Sources:
1. GDP (purchasing power parity), 2020 est. / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
2. GDP - per capita (PPP), 2020 / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *229
3. Inflation rate (consumer prices), 2019 est. / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
4. Charges for the use of intellectual property, receipts (BoP, current US$), 2020 / International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, and data files. / License: CC BY-4.0 *88
5. The Global Competitiveness Index 2019 / Rankings / Reports / World Economic Forum *141
6. High-technology exports (current US$) 2019-2020 / United Nations, Comtrade database through the WITS platform / License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *134
7. 2021 Index of Economic Freedom / International Economies / The Heritage Foundation *178
8. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold, 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency *195
9. Annual average GDP growth in %, for the last 10 years (2011-2020) / World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files / License: CC BY-4.0  *206
10. Public debt (% of GDP), 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency (from smallest to largest) *210
  * Total number of countries participating in ranking


图 1. 罗马尼亚经济指数
 

 

对于大多数指数,该国的排名高于世界平均水平,在四个指数中,罗马尼亚在评级中名列世界前四分之一。在所提供的指数中,该国的国内生产总值(0.84)、外汇和黄金储备(0.78)以及高科技出口(0.76)值最高。罗马尼亚经济最薄弱的地方是通货膨胀率(0.29),这是该国排名中下的唯一一项指标。

能源资源

罗马尼亚的化石燃料储量适中。天然气储量占世界总量的0.05%,石油占世界总储量的0.035%,煤炭占世界总储量的0.028%。罗马尼亚人口约占世界人口的0.25%。罗马尼亚的石油和天然气储量明显低于世界领先国家。但就地区而言,罗马尼亚的天然气储量与乌克兰或波兰相当,而这些国家的煤炭储量则远高于罗马尼亚[6]。
以吨油当量计算,根据2022年数据,按燃料类型划分的常规探明储量分别为:煤炭53.5%、天然气25%、石油21.5%(图5)。


表1罗马尼亚  化石能源资源

Resource /
Explanations
Crude oil*Natural gas*Coal*Shale GasTight OilCoal mine methane
Value0.6 (0.035%)3.725 (0.05%)320.77 (0.028%)50.70.30.19 - 0.84
Unitbillion barrelsTcfmillion short tonsTcfbillion barrelsBcm
Year202120202021201520152017
Source[6][6][6][7][7][7,8]

* 括号内提供了该国储量占世界总储量的比例

在罗马尼亚,除水电外的可再生资源指数显示出相对较低的值。太阳能潜力 (GHI) 主要在 3.5-3.8 kWh/m 2 /天范围内,这使得太阳能发电能够以较低或中等效率水平进行开发。风电场的建设主要集中在罗马尼亚东南部黑海沿岸地区,该地区50 m高度处的平均风速达到6 m/s。罗马尼亚有许多水资源相当丰富的河流,其中最大的是多瑙河和穆列什河。水力发电约占该国发电量的25%。
 

  表2.罗马尼亚的可再生能源资源

Resource/
Explanations
Solar Potential
(GHI)*
Wind Potential
(50 м)*
Bio Potential
(agricultural area)
Bio Potential
(forest area)
Geothermal
Potenial
Municipal Solid
Waste
Value3.5-3.85.0-6.059.130.1significant for
low enthalpy (50-120°C
)
302
UnitkWh/m2/daym/s% of land area% of land area-kg per capita
Year2020202020202020-2021
Source[9][10][11][12][13][14]

*对于该国大部分领土来说,
 

相当广阔的农业和森林面积为开发许多生物能源技术,特别是沼气、生物乙醇或生物柴油的生产提供了良好的资源基础。

能量平衡

根据[6],2022年罗马尼亚一次能源总产量为0.803万亿英热单位,消费量为1.154万亿英热单位。国内生产占一次能源消费的比例为69.6%,这使得罗马尼亚依赖能源进口。
根据《2022年世界能源统计年鉴》,2021年罗马尼亚一次能源消费量为1.40艾焦耳,以石油为主——占33%,其次是天然气——29%,煤炭——12%,水电——11.5%,核能和可再生能源——各约 7% [15]。

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Mar 2024) / www.eia.gov

2. 罗马尼亚化石燃料的生产和消费(煤炭 – 左,天然气 – 中间,石油 – 右)
 

在过去 20 年中,罗马尼亚石油产量一直在稳步下降,而消费量却是产量的两倍半。天然气的另一个特点是产量不断下降,2021年消费量略高于产量。过去二十年,煤炭产量几乎减半,而消费量几乎等于产量。

                                      
Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Mar 2024) / www.eia.gov
 
 
图 3. 罗马尼亚的电力生产
 
 

罗马尼亚的电力消耗数据在过去十年中相当稳定,但近年来消耗量下降了10%。值得注意的是,可再生能源发电量有所增加,因此化石燃料的比例有所下降。罗马尼亚通过国内发电完全实现电力自给自足。

罗马尼亚能源指数图表如下图所示:

 Sources:
1. Crude oil proved reserves, 2021 / International Energy Statistic/Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021)*98
2. Natural gas proved reserves 2021 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *99
3. Total recoverable coal reserves 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *81
4. Combination production-consumption for Crude oil 2018 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *219
5. Combination production-consumption for Natural gas 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *123
6. Combination production-consumption for Coal 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *128
7. Electricity – from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity), 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency *170
8. GDP per unit of energy use (PPP per unit of oil equivalent), 2020 *66
Primary energy consumption - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021/BP;
GDP (purchasing power parity) - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency
9. Energy use (primary energy use of oil equivalent per capita) 2020  *127
Primary energy consumption – BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021; Population - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021
*66
10. The Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report (EAPI) 2017 / Rankings / Reports / World Economic Forum
11. Electric power consumption (kWh per capita), 2016 *217
Electricity Consumption - The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency; Population - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021

12. Combination of electricity production-consumption (kWh)/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *216

* Total number of countries participating in ranking

图 4. 罗马尼亚能源指数
 

 

罗马尼亚的石油储量略高于中间水平(0.56),尽管原油生产-消费总量是图表中最低的(0.21)。该国在其他可再生能源电力(0.74)和全球能源架构绩效指数(0.81)方面处于相对有利的位置。就单位能源消耗国内生产总值(0.91)和电力生产消费综合指数(0.86)等指标而言,罗马尼亚位居全球领先地位。

能源基础设施

图 5 显示了罗马尼亚化石燃料行业最大基础设施项目分布的领土地图。如前所述,煤炭储量占所有已探明化石燃料储量的 53.5%,天然气占 25%,石油占– 21.5%。
 

图5 罗马尼亚化石燃料行业基础设施(点击地图查看PDF版本)

罗马尼亚的天然气生产主要在特兰西瓦尼亚进行,尤其是主要开采田所在的穆雷县和锡比乌县。罗马尼亚最大的天然气田是 Deleni 气田,探明储量为 850 亿立方米或 3 万亿立方英尺 [16]。天然气管道总长度约3726公里。
截至2021年,罗马尼亚已探明石油储量为6亿桶,为欧洲第四大储量。罗马尼亚传统的石油基础设施包括一些炼油厂,其中最大的是康斯坦察县黑海沿岸的Petromidia炼油厂,年加工能力为480万吨/年。有石油管道2451公里。
 

图 6. 罗马尼亚的电力生产(点击地图查看 PDF 版本)

罗马尼亚约 39% 的发电量由化石燃料发电站提供。罗马尼亚最大的发电厂是位于戈尔吉县的图尔塞尼发电厂,该发电厂是燃煤发电厂。水力发电也发挥着重要作用,约占罗马尼亚发电量的56%,位于多瑙河上的铁门一号水电站是该国最大的水电站,也是欧洲最大的水电站之一。截至2017年,罗马尼亚注册了一些10兆瓦以下的小型水电站,总装机容量为404.0兆瓦。
 

图 7. 罗马尼亚的可再生能源(点击地图查看 PDF 版本)

罗马尼亚政府制定了雄心勃勃的目标,到2030年将可再生能源(不包括水电)在其总电力结构中的份额提高到35%。为了实现这一目标,罗马尼亚宣布了多项政策来支持可再生能源行业,特别是太阳能。最大的项目之一是计划在阿拉德县建造一座 1,044 兆瓦的光伏电站,预计将成为欧洲最大的光伏电站。此外,该国水电开发潜力巨大,预计总潜力超过9吉瓦[17]。

教育与创新

下图显示了罗马尼亚在教育和创新方面的地位:

 
Sources:
1. The Global Innovation Index 2021, Rankings / Knowledge / World Intellectual Property Organization / Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2021):
Energizing the World with Innovation. Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva *132
2. Patent Grants 2011-2020, resident & abroad / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization *185
3.Patents in Force 2020 / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization *109
4. QS World University Rankings 2022 *97
5. SCImago Country Rankings (1996-2020) / Country rankings / SCImago, (n.d.). SIR-SCImago Journal & Country Rank [Portal]. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 *240
6. Internet users in 2018 / The World Factbook / Central Intelligence Agency *229
7. Internet users in 2018 (% Population) / The World Factbook / Central Intelligence Agency *229
8. Government expenditure on education, total (% of GDP), 2019 / United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
License: CCBY-4.0 / Data as of September 2021*177
9. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP), 2018 / UNESCO Institute for Statistics. License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *119
10. Scientific and technical journal articles, 2018 / National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *197
  * Total number of countries participating in ranking
 
 
图8. 罗马尼亚教育和创新指数
 
 

 

大多数描述该国在教育和创新相关国际排名中的定位的指数都高于平均水平。罗马尼亚在 SCImago 国家/地区排名 (0.83)、互联网用户 (0.81) 和科学技术期刊文章 (0.80) 方面排名最高。根据两项指数——政府教育支出(占GDP的%)和研发支出(占GDP的%)——罗马尼亚的排名低于世界平均水平。

生态环境保护

与环境问题相关的指标如下图所示:

 Sources:
1. CO2 total emission by countries 2020 / European Commission / Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)*208
2. CO2 per capita emission 2020/European Commission/Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) *208
3. Forest area 2020 (% of land area) / The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
4. Forest area change 2010-2020 (1000 ha/year) / The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
5. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2020 / Rankings / Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Yale University *180
6. Annual freshwater withdrawals (m3 per capita), 2017 *179
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion m3), 2017 – Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data. /License: CC BY-4.0; 
Population – United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019).
World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021
7. The National Footprint Accounts 2017 (Biocapacity Credit / Deficit) / Global Footprint Network *188
8. Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent), 2018 / Data for up to 1990 are sourced from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Data from 1990 are CAIT data: Climate Watch. 2020. GHG Emissions. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Available at: License : Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)  *191
9. The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2022 / Overall Results / Jan Burck, Thea Uhlich, Christoph Bals, Niklas Höhne, Leonardo Nascimento /
Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network *60

  * Total number of countries participating in ranking
 
 
图 9. 罗马尼亚环境指数
 
 

 

罗马尼亚属于二氧化碳和甲烷排放量较高的国家之一。这些事实也导致该国在 2022 年气候变化绩效指数 (0.41) 中的排名低于平均水平。该国积极的环境特征包括2010年至2020年森林面积的变化(0.96)以及2020年环境绩效指数的相对较高得分(0.82)。总体来看,我国环境状况亟待改善。

参考

[1] List of sovereign states and dependencies by area / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_and_dependencies_by_area
[2] List of countries and dependencies by population density / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_population_density
[3] Romania / The world factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency / www.cia.gov
[4] GDP, PPP (constant 2011 international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[5] GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[6] International Energy Statistic / Geography / Romania / U.S. Energy Information Administration (February, 2023)  / 
www.eia.gov
[7] World Shale Resource Assessments / U.S. Energy Information Administration (September 24, 2015) / https://www.eia.gov/
[8] Potential for the utilization of coal methane / aenert.com/technologies/fossil-fuel/unconventional-gas/coal-seam-methane/
[9] Solar resource data obtained from the Global Solar Atlas, owned by the World Bank Group and provided by Solargis / Global Solar Atlas / globalsolaratlas.info
[10] Wind Map / Global Wind Atlas 2.0, a free, web-based application developed, owned and operated by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in partnership with the World Bank Group, utilizing data provided by Vortex, with funding provided by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). For additional information: globalwindatlas.info
[11] Agricultural land (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[12] Forest area (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[13] Geothermal energy in Romania/ geodistribution.ro/geothermalRomania.htm

[14] Municipal waste statistics Updated / 19 July 2018 / Full list / Statistics Explained / Eurostat / ec.europa.eu
[15] BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020-2022 (PDF) / BP / https://www.bp.com/
[16] Natural Gas /World Energy / www.worldenergy.org/assets/images/imported/2013/10/WER_2013_3_Natural_Gas.pdf
[17] Romania Renewable Energy Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecasts (2023 - 2028) / Mordor Intelligence / www.mordorintelligence.com

指定了图表和曲线的来源在图像下。

有关罗马尼亚能源行业的更多信息,请参见此处