Norway, officially the kingdom of Norway, is a country in Northern Europe. Its capital city is Oslo. . The country has a land border with Russia, Sweden and Finland, and has access to the Norwegian, Barents and North Seas. Norway is the 69th largest country in the world, and is home to nearly 5 million people, as of 2022. In terms of population density the country is 215th in the world, from 248 countries considered [2,3]. Norway is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy and the official language is Norwegian. The administrative map of the country is divided into 18 provinces .
|Norway/ Kingdom of Norway|
|Capital: Oslo||Density: 14.3/km2||Currency: (€) (EUR)|
|Official languages: Norwegian, Sámi||Life expectancy at birth: 83.21 years||GDP (PPP): $452.964 billion (2023 est.)|
|National Day: 17 May||Area: 385,207 km2||GDP - per capita (PPP): $82,236 (2023 est.)|
|Population: 5,488,984 (2023 est.)||Coastline: 2,650 km||Internet country code: .no|
Norway has one of the most advanced market economies in Europe, which is reflected in Figure 1. By many indicators in the presented diagram, Finland places in the top 25% of the leading countries in the world included in the rating. However, according to the indicator for the average GDP growth in percentage, the country is below the world average.
1. GDP (purchasing power parity), 2020 est. / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
2. GDP - per capita (PPP), 2020 / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *229
3. Inflation rate (consumer prices), 2019 est. / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
4. Charges for the use of intellectual property, receipts (BoP, current US$), 2020 / International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, and data files. / License: CC BY-4.0 *88
5. The Global Competitiveness Index 2019 / Rankings / Reports / World Economic Forum *141
6. High-technology exports (current US$) 2019-2020 / United Nations, Comtrade database through the WITS platform / License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *134
7. 2021 Index of Economic Freedom / International Economies / The Heritage Foundation *178
8. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold, 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency *195
9. Annual average GDP growth in %, for the last 10 years (2011-2020) / World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files / License: CC BY-4.0 *206
10. Public debt (% of GDP), 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency (from smallest to largest) *210
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
Since the beginning of the 1990s the country has experienced sustained GDP growth in purchasing power parity, both in general and per capita [4,5]. However, GDP at purchasing power parity decreased from $380 billion in 2017 to $342 billion (51st place in the world) in 2020 . The country’s GDP at purchasing power parity per capita is higher (13th place in the world in 2020), and has also been demonstrating a slight drop: from $64,300 in 2018 to $63,600 in 2020 .
The level of inflation in Norway changed from 1.9% in 2017 to 2.1% in 2019; putting the country 113th in the world by this indicator (ranked by levels of inflation, low to high) . By market value of publicly traded shares in 2016, the country was 35th in the world, out of 121 countries considered.
According to The Global Competitiveness Report 2019, presented by the World Economic Forum, Norway was 17th (out of an estimated total of 141 countries), behind Finland and Sweden. This measure reflects the effectiveness of the use of the country’s own resources for sustainable development. In addition to a number of economic indicators this index also takes into account such variables as education, health, level of innovation, etc. In the list of 134 countries that exported high-tech products in 2019-2020, Norway was 38th, ahead of the world average. According to the Index of Economic Freedom 2021, which is based on freedom of business, freedom from government action, property protection, and freedom from corruption, the country was considered “mostly free”: 28th out of 178 countries. In terms of gold reserves and foreign exchange reserves Norway was 34th in the world.
According to the indicator for the average GDP growth in percentage over the last 10 years (2011-2020), Norway placed 147th out of 206 countries in 2020. In terms of public debt, calculated as a percentage of the country's GDP, Norway was ranked 146th in 2017, out of 210 countries considered.
In 2018, the Norwegian energy company Equinor was included in the Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's largest companies, and in 2017 Statoil occupied 155th place in the rating of the leading energy companies, Platts 250.
Norway has significant reserves of fossil resources (Table. 1). According to proven reserves of oil and natural gas, the country is ranked 20th in the world . According to data for 2021, in terms of tons of oil equivalent, conventional proved reserves by fuels broke down as follows: oil - 44.3%, natural gas – 55.6%, and coal – 0.1% (Figure 5). According to , at the end of 2017 proven oil reserves in Norway were estimated at 6.6 billion barrels, and according to  there were 6.376 billion barrels as of the beginning of 2018; ВР estimated there were at 7.9 thousand million barrels as of the end of 2020 .
Proven natural gas reserves in Norway in the beginning of 2018 were estimated at 63 Tcf according to , and at 1.782 Tcm according to . According to the ВР report , proven natural gas reserves were 1.4 Tcm at the end of 2020.
Table 1. Fossil energy resources of Norway
|Resource /Explanations||Crude oil*||Natural gas*||Coal*||Oil Sands and|
Extra Heavy Oil
|Shale Gas||Tight (Shale) Oil|
|Unit||billion barrels||Tcf||million short tons||-||-||-|
*share of the country’s reserves in world total is provided in brackets
Despite the presence of significant proven reserves of traditional oil and gas there are practically no unconventional fossil resources, including extra heavy oil, kerogen oil and oil found in low permeability wells. However, it should be noted that parts of the developed oil fields contain significant amounts of heavy oil. Norway has various reserves of renewable energy sources. A selection of basic indicators of this type of resource is presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Renewable energy resources of Norway
|Unit||kWh/m2/day||m/s||GWh/year||% of land area||% of land area||MW/m2||kg per capita|
*for the majority of the territory of the country
The level of global horizontal radiation does not exceed 2.7 kWh/m2/day; in the south-east of the country, it can reach its maximum of 2.7-3.0 kWh/m2/day . This is a limited resource, although in the south of the country these figures are commensurate with those in neighbouring Denmark, where solar energy has received more extensive development. The distribution of wind resources is as follows: for the majority of the country the wind speed is 7.0-9.0 m/s, and in the west of the country between Bergen and Alesund may exceed 9.0 m/s at a height of 50 m . By this indicator, Norway has some of the highest wind potential in the world. The most valuable and widely used natural renewable resource Norway is water resources. A large number of mountain rivers in different parts of the country provide a significant hydropotential for the production of electricity. The global theoretical potential of hydropower in Norway is 214 000 GWh/year, according to , which exceeds, for example, the hydro potential of Austria, and is comparable to that of Iceland. Norway has consistently ranked among the top ten countries in the world in terms of installed capacity and power generation using hydropower. Electricity generation per capita in Norway is one of the highest in the world (according to this indicator, the country is second only to Iceland). In addition, the share of hydroelectric power in the total volume of electricity production exceeds 92% (Fig. 3). In addition, it should be noted that the tidal energy potential on the west coast of the country can reach 40-60 kW/m .
This is another valuable renewable energy resource of the country which is inaccessible to most other countries.
According to sources, the potential of Norway's geothermal energy in 2015 was about 58 MW/m²  is a promising local resource for the development of geothermal heat pump technologies.
According to data from 2018, 2.7% of the territory of the country is occupied by agricultural land, the area of which has been slightly decreasing during the last half-century . 27.8% of the territory of the country was forested . The country's agriculture cannot be a competitive supplier of energy resources in the form of bio-waste. According to Eurostat, in 2020 Norway generated 726 kg municipal waste per capita, ahead of, for example, Finland – (596 kg per capita), but behind Denmark – (845 kg per capita) . This resource is a valuable raw material for recycling or energy production, the technologies of which have reached a high level of development in Norway.
According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021, total primary energy consumption in Norway in 2020 was 1.93 Exajoules, 64.8% of which was from hydroenergy, 19.2% from oil, 8.3% from natural gas, 1.5% from coal, and 5.7% from other renewables .
Using the data from [3,7] we calculated GDP per unit of primary energy use in Norway in 2018 at $7.4 taking into account PPP in 2011 prices per unit of energy expended (the equivalent of energy contained in one kg of oil equivalent/$ PPP per kg of oil equivalent), which is significantly lower than the world average level of GDP energy efficiency. Norway is the largest producer and exporter of oil in Western Europe . Oil production between 2001 and 2013 had been declining, followed by a tail off, and in 2020 amounted to 2 009 thousand barrels/day . Oil consumption between 2002 and 2020 remained almost unchanged (Fig. 2), at 226 thousand barrels/day . According to a BP survey, the level of oil production in Norway in 2020 was 2 001 thousand barrels/day, and oil consumption was 206 thousand barrels/day . In 2020, total final crude oil production in the country was 3532760.0 TJ . Oil exports from Norway in 2017 amounted to 1.383 million barrels/day , and the main importers were EU countries .
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Sep 2023) / https://www.eia.gov/
Figure 2. The production and consumption of fossil fuels in Norway (coal – left, gas – in the center, oil – right)
The production of natural gas in the country grew rapidly between 2002 and 2020, reaching its peak of 4 375 Bcf in 2017. The consumption of natural gas between 2002 and 2020 did not exceed the level of 282 Bcf, and by 2020 totalled 141 Bcf . According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021 , gas production in the country in 2020 was 111.5 Bcm, while consumption was 4.4 Bcm. According to the International Energy Agency, total final natural gas production in 2020 was 4560755 TJ-gross, and natural gas exports were 4 344 739.0 TJ-gross . In 2017, Norway was third largest exporter of natural gas, after Russia and Qatar. Almost 95% of the gas produced was supplied through an extensive network of pipelines, mainly to EU countries . Since 2001 coal production in the country demonstrated multi-directional dynamics, and in 2020 reached the level of 0.1 million short tons. Coal consumption during the same time period did not exceed 0.97 million short tons, and in 2019 was 0.91 million short tons . According to BP, coal consumption amounted to 0.03 Exajoules in 2020 . Norway mainly uses hydropower for the production of electricity (Fig. 3).
In 2020, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the country produced 153.66 TWh of electricity, where hydropower power accounted for 92.1%, renewables for 6.7%, and fossil fuels for 1.2% (Fig. 6). Norway’s position in the comparative diagram of energy index is shown in Fig. 4.
1. Crude oil proved reserves, 2021 / International Energy Statistic/Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021)*98
2. Natural gas proved reserves 2021 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *99
3. Total recoverable coal reserves 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *81
4. Combination production-consumption for Crude oil 2018 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *219
5. Combination production-consumption for Natural gas 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *123
6. Combination production-consumption for Coal 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *128
7. Electricity – from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity), 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency *170
8. GDP per unit of energy use (PPP per unit of oil equivalent), 2020 *66
Primary energy consumption - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021/BP;GDP (purchasing power parity) - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency
9. Energy use (primary energy use of oil equivalent per capita) 2020 *127
Primary energy consumption – BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021; Population - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021*66
10. The Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report (EAPI) 2017 / Rankings / Reports / World Economic Forum
11. Electric power consumption (kWh per capita), 2016 *217
Electricity Consumption - The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency; Population - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021
12. Combination of electricity production-consumption (kWh)/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *216
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
Figure 4. Energy indices of Norway
Norway is the highest ranked country in terms of production/consumption of oil and gas, ranging from high to low values. In terms of the share of electricity production from renewable energy sources (excluding hydropower), in 2017 Norway was 114th out of 170 countries selected for consideration, behind a number of European countries. In 2020, Norway was 50th out of 66 countries ranked by the ratio of GDP per unit of energy use; energy consumption per capita is much higher placing the country 6th in the world. In terms of electricity consumption per capita, the country is second in the world, behind only Iceland. For the indicator of combination of electricity production-consumption, Norway is 18th in the ranked list of 216 countries.
A territorial map showing the distribution of the largest infrastructure projects of the fossil fuel sector and electricity in Norway is shown in Figure 5. In the total potential of fossil energy resources, natural gas plays the predominant role – 55.6%; oil amounts to 44.3%; and coal to 0.1% (Figure 5).
The main gas field in Norway is the offshore Troll Natural Gas Field, whose reserves in 2015, according to , were around 1.2 Tcf. LNG is delivered to a number of regions of the country via two terminals. Gas exports, in addition to pipelines, are carried out via three terminals, the largest of which is Snohvit, Statoil LNG Export Terminal (4.2 Mtpa) . Gas is transported via a network of pipelines with a length of 8520 km (Fig.5). Norway is actively involved in the search and research of gas hydrates; gas hydrate occurrences have been found near the Svalbard area (Fig. 5).
Figure 5. Basic Infrastructure facilities of the Fossil fuel sector and Electricity in Norway
One of the most developed oil fields is the offshore Heidrun, the production of which was estimated at 140 000 bl/day . Oil refining is carried out at two refineries, the largest, Mongstad, Statoil Oil Refinery, has an installed capacity of 226,000 bbl/day; there is a neighboring oil storage facility  (Fig.5). Gas condensate is transported via pipelines with a total length of 1,304 km (Figure 5). The largest heavy oil field is the Grane, developed by Equinor Heavy Oil, which can produce 150,000 bbl/day . Coal mines are concentrated in Svalbard, the leading being Svea; the production from this mine was estimated at 1 million tons in 2015 . Norway actively uses FPSOs (floating production storage offloading) for oil production. The map showing the territorial distribution of Norway’s largest infrastructure facilities for electricity generation is presented in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Electricity production and Renewable energy in Norway
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration the share of fossil fuels in energy production in Norway in 2020 was only 1.2%, which is generated at three large gas and coal power plants (Fig.6). The largest coal-fired power station is Longyearbyen, with an installed capacity of only 12 MW, however the government plans to close the plant completely in the coming years .
The share of hydro-power in energy production was 92.1%, this sector is represented by both pumped-storage power plants, and large and small hydropower plants (Fig.6). The largest pumped storage power plant is Saurdal, with an installed capacity of 640 MW, and the largest hydro-power station is Kvilldal with a capacity of 1 240 MW [25,26]. In 2017 Norway registered more than 100 small scaled hydropower stations, with the total installed capacity of 2 571 MW according to .
As noted above, renewable energy (excluding hydroenergy) in Norway accounted for 6.7% of its total electricity generation. The level of direct solar radiation in some areas of the country can reach 3kWh/m2 . Near the capital, there is a solar district heating plant, Akershus, with a capacity of 8 MWh . The wind speed in the west of the country can exceed 9 m/s which offers a potential renewable energy source that is inaccessible to most other countries. There are 10 large wind farms in Norway and three more are under construction, the largest of which will be Bjerkreim, with an installed capacity of 294 MW . Bioenergy does not play a major role in the production of electricity – its share in the production of renewable sources is insignificant – 0.2% (Fig.6).
There are biogas enterprises in the country as well as enterprises for processing municipal garbage, production of biodiesel, bioethanol, pellets, etc. (Fig.6). Norway has large enterprises for the production of second-generation biogas and bioethanol: Seal Sands with a capacity of 25 mln Nm³/year; and Bergen, Weyland with a capacity of 3.9 mln Nm³/year [30.31]. Fredrikstad is the largest biodiesel producer in the country, capable of producing about 100,000 tons per year .
Other notable facilities include: Tofte, Statkraft Osmotic Power Plant with a capacity of 10 Kw ; Sarpsborg 1-2 MSW Gasification Plant waste gasification plant, with an installed capacity of 54 MWh [34,35]; and Ål, HallingdalTrepellets Pellet Plant, which can produce 30,000 tons of pellets annually .
The largest facility for the generation of electricity from municipal waste is Oslo Klemetsrud, which can recycle 375,000 tons of waste annually, and can also generate electricity from landfill gas flowing through pipelines from the Grønmo landfills. Oslo Klemetsrud produces 160 GWh of electricity and 590 GWh of energy for district heating . Norway is at the forefront of the development of hydrogen energy, including as an energy source for vehicles. According to the data of the end of September 2018, nine hydrogen filling stations were in operation in the country (Fig. 9).
The energy policy of the country is aimed, primarily at the improvement of energy efficiency, reduction of harmful emissions, and the development of renewable energy technologies. For these purposes, various pilot projects are being built in the country, such as an advanced biofuel demonstration plant in Toft, through the joint efforts of Steeper Energy and Silva Green Fuel, worth €50.7 million . One of the world's largest "green hydrogen" plants will be built in Norway, which will have a capacity of 10 MW; the hydrogen produced by the electrolysis method will be used both for vehicles and for power generation . Norway has ambitious plans to use electric vehicles and limit the use of traditional vehicles. The study of gas hydrates mentioned above, as well as the development of ocean technologies - in particular stations of the osmotic type- are some of the many innovative aspects of Norway’s energy agenda.
1. The Global Innovation Index 2021, Rankings / Knowledge / World Intellectual Property Organization / Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2021):
Energizing the World with Innovation. Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva *132
2. Patent Grants 2011-2020, resident & abroad / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization *185
3.Patents in Force 2020 / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization *109
4. QS World University Rankings 2022 *97
5. SCImago Country Rankings (1996-2020) / Country rankings / SCImago, (n.d.). SIR-SCImago Journal & Country Rank [Portal]. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 *240
6. Internet users in 2018 / The World Factbook / Central Intelligence Agency *229
7. Internet users in 2018 (% Population) / The World Factbook / Central Intelligence Agency *229
8. Government expenditure on education, total (% of GDP), 2019 / United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
License: CCBY-4.0 / Data as of September 2021*177
9. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP), 2018 / UNESCO Institute for Statistics. License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *119
10. Scientific and technical journal articles, 2018 / National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *197
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
Figure 7. The indices of education and innovation in Norway
Advanced Hydrocarbon Mapping AS, Norsk Hydro ASA, are leading patent holders, and the University of Bergen, the University of Tromso, the Arctic University of Norway, actively publish their research in the field of gas hydrates. Another important patenting area is coalbed methane. Here the leaders in patenting are Sinvent AS, Norsk Hydro ASA, and by number of publications - GeoKnowledge AS and the International Research Institute of Stavanger. Noteworthy enterprises in the field of associated petroleum gas include SWT AS, Cubility AS, Kongsberg Offshore AS. Research and development in this field is carried out by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Carbon Limits AS, Statoil ASA. In the field of hydrocarbon production from reservoirs with low permeability, the leading patent holders are Statoil Petroleum, Impact Technology Systems AS, Statoil ASA, and the University of Oslo, the University of Stavanger, and Statoil ASA conduct research in the field.
The leading patent holders in the field of bioenergy are Norsk Biogass AS, SEAWEED ENERGY SOLUTIONS AS, MICROA AS. The following research agencies are actively engaged in research: the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, and SINTEF. A large number of companies patent technical solutions in the field of energy production from renewable sources. In the field of solar energy prominent enterprises include NEST AS, Yara International ASA, and ENERGYNEST AS. Leading research organizations in this field are the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and NEST AS.
Sway Turbine AS,Hywind AS, Statoilhydro ASA, and GE Wind Energy Norway AS have received the largest number of patents in the field of wind power. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and SINTEF conduct research in the field.
1. CO2 total emission by countries 2020 / European Commission / Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)*208
2. CO2 per capita emission 2020/European Commission/Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) *208
3. Forest area 2020 (% of land area) / The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
4. Forest area change 2010-2020 (1000 ha/year) / The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
5. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2020 / Rankings / Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Yale University *180
6. Annual freshwater withdrawals (m3 per capita), 2017 *179
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion m3), 2017 – Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data. /License: CC BY-4.0;
Population – United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019).
World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021
7. The National Footprint Accounts 2017 (Biocapacity Credit / Deficit) / Global Footprint Network *188
8. Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent), 2018 / Data for up to 1990 are sourced from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Data from 1990 are CAIT data: Climate Watch. 2020. GHG Emissions. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Available at: License : Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) *191
9. The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2022 / Overall Results / Jan Burck, Thea Uhlich, Christoph Bals, Niklas Höhne, Leonardo Nascimento /
Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network *60
* Total number of countries participating in ranking
Figure 8. Environmental Indices of Norway
Finally, it is worth mentioning that according to the Ecological Footprint Atlas rating, Norway is among a number of ecological creditors.
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 GDP, PPP (constant 2011 international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database.License : CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database . License : CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
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 FACTS Energy and Water Resources in Norway 2015 (PDF) / Regjeringen.no / www.regjeringen.no
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 Solar resource data obtained from the Global Solar Atlas, owned by the World Bank Group and provided by Solargis / Global Solar Athlas / globalsolaratlas.info
 Norway Wind Map/ Global Wind Atlas 2.0, a free, web-based application developed, owned and operated by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in partnership with the World Bank Group, utilizing data provided by Vortex, with funding provided by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). For additional information: globalwindatlas.info
 Agricultural land (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License : CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 Forest area (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.License : CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
 Municipal waste statistics Updated / Full list / Statistics Explained / Eurostat / ec.europa.eu
 International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Jan 2020) www.eia.gov/beta/international/
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 Monster gas field revival sets Norway up for output record /October 22, 2015 / World Oil / www.worldoil.com
 2017 World LNG Report (PDF)/ IGU / www.igu.org
 Heidrun oil field / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heidrun_oil_field
 Grane Oil Field / A Barrel Full / abarrelfull.wikidot.com/grane-oil-field
 Norway / EURACOAL / www.euracoal.be /
 Longyear Energiverk / Wikipedia / no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longyear_Energiverk
 Karsto Gas Power Plant / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%A5rst%C3%B8_Power_Station
 2:Electricity generation (PDF) / Global Assets / Regjeringen.no / www.regjeringen.no
 Facts 2008: Energy and Water Resources in Norway / Regjeringen.no / www.regjeringen.no
 World Small Hydropower Development Report 2019 – Norway (PDF) / Small Hydropower World / www.smallhydroworld.org /
 Norway / Plant database / Solar District Heating / solar-district-heating.eu
 Large onshore order from Norway: Siemens Gamesa to supply 70 wind turbines to three projects / May 24, 2018 / Siemens Gamesa / www.siemensgamesa.com
 Biokraft Skogn / Biokraft / biokraft.no
 BERGEN biogassanlegg Åpning / 21. oktober 2016 / Bergen Kommune / www.bergen.kommune.no
 Successful inauguration of new biodiesel plant in Norway / Cecilia Svensson / September 15, 2016 / Perstorp / www.perstorp.com
 Statkraft osmotic power prototype in Hurum / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statkraft_osmotic_power_prototype_in_Hurum
 Sarpsborg 1 Incineration Plant / Waste-to-energy plant / Waste-to-energy Plants / Norway / Industry About / www.industryabout.com
 Sarpsborg 2 Incineration Plant / Waste-to-energy plant / Waste-to-energy Plants / Norway / Industry About / www.industryabout.com /
 HALLINGDAL TREPELLETS / htp.as
 Klemetsrud energigjenvinningsanlegg / Wikipedia / no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klemetsrud_energigjenvinningsanlegg
 International hydrogen fueling stations / Hydrogen Data / hyarc / Hydrogen Tools / h2tools.org
 Södra Cell Tofte / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%B6dra_Cell_Tofte
 NORSK N2/ norskh2.com
The sources of charts and curves are specified under the images.
For more information about the energy industry in Norway see here