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塞浦路斯的能源工业
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经济总体状况

据2023年统计,塞浦路斯领土面积排名世界第169位,人口约130万。按人口密度计算,该国居 世界第94位。塞浦路斯是总统共和制国家,也是欧盟成员。全国分为6个区。首都和最大城市是尼科西亚,官方语言是希腊语和土耳其语[1,2,3]。
塞浦路斯,正式名称为塞浦路斯共和国,是中东地中海东部的一个岛国。塞浦路斯位于土耳其海岸以南,叙利亚和黎巴嫩以西,埃及以北,希腊以东。该岛东北部由自封的北塞浦路斯土耳其共和国管辖,仅得到土耳其承认。该国海岸线总长度为648公里[3]。

 

Cyprus / Republic of Cyprus
Capital: NicosiaDensity: 123.4/km2Currency: Euro (€) (EUR)
Official languages:  Greek, TurkishLife expectancy at birth: 81.39 yearsGDP (PPP): $49.857 billion (2023 est.)
National Day: 01 AprilArea (land): 9,251 km2GDP - per capita (PPP): $51,611 (2023 est.)
Population: 1,308,120 (2023 est.)Coastline: 648 kmInternet country code: .cy

Source: [1,2,3,4,5]

Bridge Lovers Near Ayia Napa, Cyprus. Envato Elements. AZMRU8KF4N


塞浦路斯相对于其他国家的评级位置是根据一系列广泛的经济、能源、创新和教育指数以及反映环境状况的指标确定的。经济指标包括人均GDP、年均GDP增长率、高新技术出口等。能源指数列表包括石油、天然气和煤炭的探明储量、产耗比以及能源使用量等。每个指数都有一个包含的成员国排名列表。由于每个指数的每个评级的国家数量不同,因此将感兴趣的国家的定位显示在一个特殊的图表上,其中纵轴是从0到1的统一相对刻度,而横轴表示各个指数以及与下面给出的描述相关的相应编号。

因此,在这样一个相对的“0-1”图中,该国家的位置按照其在原始评级列表中的位置成比例地用点来标记。如果该国在所选指标方面处于领先地位,则将在相关图表“0-1”的上部绿色区域中标记为接近 1,如果该国在评级列表中属于局外人,则将标记为接近 1图表下方红色区域“0-1”等

塞浦路斯经济指数排名:

 Sources:
1. GDP (purchasing power parity), 2020 est. / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
2. GDP - per capita (PPP), 2020 / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *229
3. Inflation rate (consumer prices), 2019 est. / The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *228
4. Charges for the use of intellectual property, receipts (BoP, current US$), 2020 / International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, and data files. / License: CC BY-4.0 *88
5. The Global Competitiveness Index 2019 / Rankings / Reports / World Economic Forum *141
6. High-technology exports (current US$) 2019-2020 / United Nations, Comtrade database through the WITS platform / License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *134
7. 2021 Index of Economic Freedom / International Economies / The Heritage Foundation *178
8. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold, 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency *195
9. Annual average GDP growth in %, for the last 10 years (2011-2020) / World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files / License: CC BY-4.0*206
10. Public debt (% of GDP), 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency (from smallest to largest) *210
  * Total number of countries participating in ranking


图 1. 塞浦路斯经济指数

塞浦路斯拥有基于提供服务(包括旅游相关活动)的市场经济。在所提供的指数中,该国的通货膨胀率 (0.89) 和经济自由度指数 (0.81) 最高。塞浦路斯经济指标中最弱的部分是公共债务(0.09)和年平均 GDP 增长率(0.19)。

能源资源

塞浦路斯没有化石燃料的自然储备,依靠进口燃料和国内生产的可再生能源来满足大部分能源需求。
 
 表1.塞浦路斯的可再生能源资源

Resource/
explanations
Solar Potential
(GHI)*
Wind Potential
(50 м)*
Bio Potential
(agricultural area)
Bio Potential
(forest area)
Municipal Solid
Waste
Value4.6-5.54.0-5.514.518.7633
UnitkWh/m2/daym/s% of land area% of land areakg per capita
Year20202020202020202021
Source[6][7][8][9][10]

*对于该国大部分领土而言

可再生能源是塞浦路斯可用的主要自然能源。近年来,它们经历了快速增长。太阳能是主要来源,到2023年约占可再生能源总装机容量的78%[11]。塞浦路斯年平均日照时间超过300天,为光伏发电的发展提供了优越的条件。在塞浦路斯地中海沿岸活动频繁的地区,最常见的太阳能 GHI 强度为每天2

PAFOS INTL. CYPRUS
Latitüde: 34.72  Longitude: 32.49
Average speed: 3.81 m/s, Operational share: 64%

Average daily wind speed for 10 years of observations, m/s, 10 m above the ground


Source: based on NOAA U.S. Department of Commerce
Detailed information:
 Interactive map of wind resources

PAFOS INTL. CYPRUS
Latitiude: 45.8, Longitude: 15.18

Average daily sky coverage over 10 years of observations, %


CLR - clear, SCT - scattered from 1/8 TO 4/8, BKN - broken from 5/8 TO 7/8, OVC - overcast, OBS - obscured, POB - partial obscuration

CLR - clear, SCT - scattered from 1/8 TO 4/8, BKN - broken from 5/8 TO 7/8, OVC - overcast, OBS - obscured, POB - partial obscuration

Source: based on NOAA U.S. Department of Commerce
Detailed information:
 Interactive map of solar resources

风能是继太阳能之后第二重要的可再生能源,潜力巨大,尤其是海上风能。在该国北部地中海沿岸,50米高度处的风速达到每秒5.5至6.0米。
此外,塞浦路斯发展厌氧消化处理有机含量高的废物也有很大潜力。

能量平衡

根据[12],2022年塞浦路斯一次能源总产量为0.003万亿英热单位,而消费量为0.098万亿英热单位。因此,国内生产在一次能源消费中的份额约为3.06%。这使得塞浦路斯成为一个严重依赖能源进口的国家。
根据《2022年世界能源统计年鉴》,2021年塞浦路斯一次能源消费量为0.11艾焦耳[13]。从国际能源署提供的能源供应总量来看[14],2021年石油占塞浦路斯最大的能源来源为85%,其次是生物燃料和废物(6.9%)、风能、太阳能和其他可再生能源(6.3),煤炭(1.8)。国内能源生产 73% 来自风能和太阳能等可再生能源,27% 来自生物燃料和废物。

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Mar 2024) / www.eia.gov

2. 塞浦路斯化石燃料的生产和消费(煤炭 – 左,天然气 – 中间,石油 – 右)
 

从图中可以看出如上所述,天然气不属于该国能源结构的一部分。过去10年,煤炭消耗量急剧下降,2021年还微不足道,但2022年却急剧增加至5.8万短吨。该国的主要化石燃料是石油,完全依赖进口,其消费量基本保持在同一水平,略有波动。

                                                          Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (Mar 2024) / www.eia.gov

                                     3. 塞浦路斯的发电量


塞浦路斯最大的发电来源是化石燃料,即原油。上图所示的十年间,非水力可再生能源的份额有一个明显的逐渐增加的趋势。 2022年,原油发电量占发电量的83%,可再生能源发电量占17%,而2010年这一比例分别为98.7%和1.3%。

 Sources:
1. Crude oil proved reserves, 2021 / International Energy Statistic/Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021)*98
2. Natural gas proved reserves 2021 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *99
3. Total recoverable coal reserves 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *81
4. Combination production-consumption for Crude oil 2018 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *219
5. Combination production-consumption for Natural gas 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *123
6. Combination production-consumption for Coal 2019 / International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2021) *128
7. Electricity – from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity), 2017 est. / The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency *170
8. GDP per unit of energy use (PPP per unit of oil equivalent), 2020 *66
Primary energy consumption - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021/BP;
GDP (purchasing power parity) - The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency
9. Energy use (primary energy use of oil equivalent per capita) 2020  *127
Primary energy consumption – BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021; Population - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021
*66
10. The Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report (EAPI) 2017 / Rankings / Reports / World Economic Forum
11. Electric power consumption (kWh per capita), 2016 *217
Electricity Consumption - The World Factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency; Population - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021

12. Combination of electricity production-consumption (kWh)/The World Factbook/Library/Central Intelligence Agency *216

* Total number of countries participating in ranking


图 4. 塞浦路斯能源指数

 

由于塞浦路斯没有大量的原油、天然气或煤炭储量,因此前三个位置仍然无人占据。这也适用于天然气生产消费比指标,因为塞浦路斯不消耗天然气。煤炭产耗比(0.79)和单位能源消费GDP(0.79)是其中最高的。此外,该国在人均电力消耗(0.66)和其他可再生能源发电(0.66)方面处于相对有利的位置。塞浦路斯能源指数的最低指标是原油生产-消费总量(0.32)。

能源基础设施

图5显示了塞浦路斯最大化石燃料行业项目分布的领土地图。由于该国没有国内生产,该国重要的基础设施是确保原材料进入该国的塞浦路斯港口。其中之一是位于塞浦路斯南部利马索尔和拉纳卡之间的瓦西里科工业港。瓦西里科斯的石油码头用于卸载燃料,以满足当地石油发电厂的需求
Map of fossil fuel infrastructure and electricity production in Cyprus
图5. 塞浦路斯化石燃料行业和电力生产的基本基础设施(点击地图查看PDF版本)


该国还有许多其他石油码头,以及另外两个大型燃油发电站– Dhekelia,位于拉纳卡东南海岸和塞浦路斯南海岸的莫尼。
Map of Renewable energy infrastructure in Cyprus
图 6. 塞浦路斯的可再生能源 (点击地图查看 PDF 版本)

太阳能在我国能源结构中占有重要地位。太阳能,特别是光伏发电,发展相当迅速,包括私营部门。我国已经拥有一定数量的大大小小的太阳能园区,分布在全国各地,其中南部和中部地区较为集中。其中之一是位于尼科西亚 Agios Ioannis Malounta 的 16.8 兆瓦光伏园区。
风能约占可再生能源发电量的32%。塞浦路斯最大的风电场之一是Orites风电场,装机容量为82兆瓦,位于该国西南部帕福斯附近,面积16平方公里。 Orites 风电场全面投入运营后可满足塞浦路斯约 3.5% 的电力需求 [15]。
塞浦路斯的可再生能源行业在过去十年中取得了重大进展,根据综合国家能源和气候计划[16],塞浦路斯2030年可再生能源的主要目标是实现可再生能源在最终能源消费中的比例至少达到22.9%。与此同时,在电力领域,可再生能源的份额预计将增加至30.3%。对于供暖和制冷行业,塞浦路斯计划到 2030 年达到 39.4%,在交通运输行业,这一份额为 14%。

教育与创新

下图显示了塞浦路斯在教育和创新方面的地位:

 Sources:
1. The Global Innovation Index 2021, Rankings / Knowledge / World Intellectual Property Organization / Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2021):
Energizing the World with Innovation. Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva *132
2. Patent Grants 2011-2020, resident & abroad / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization *185
3.Patents in Force 2020 / Statistical country profiles / World Intellectual Property Organization *109
4. QS World University Rankings 2022 *97
5. SCImago Country Rankings (1996-2020) / Country rankings / SCImago, (n.d.). SIR-SCImago Journal & Country Rank [Portal]. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 *240
6. Internet users in 2018 / The World Factbook / Central Intelligence Agency *229
7. Internet users in 2018 (% Population) / The World Factbook / Central Intelligence Agency *229
8. Government expenditure on education, total (% of GDP), 2019 / United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
License: CCBY-4.0 / Data as of September 2021*177
9. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP), 2018 / UNESCO Institute for Statistics. License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *119
10. Scientific and technical journal articles, 2018 / National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. License: CCBY-4.0 / Data *197
  * Total number of countries participating in ranking


图 8. 塞浦路斯的教育和创新指数
 

与许多人口相对较少的国家一样,塞浦路斯的互联网用户绝对数量(0.39)低于世界平均水平,但如果我们考虑用户数量占总人口的比例,该国的表现非常好( 0.81)。此外,积极因素包括政府教育支出占 GDP 的百分比(0.87)和全球创新指数排名(0.79)。图表中最薄弱的部分是 2020 年有效专利数 (0.06) 和 QS 世界大学排名 (0.12)。

生态环境保护

与环境问题相关的指标如下图所示。

 Sources:
1. CO2 total emission by countries 2020 / European Commission / Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)*208
2. CO2 per capita emission 2020/European Commission/Joint Research Centre (JRC) / Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) *208
3. Forest area 2020 (% of land area) / The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
4. Forest area change 2010-2020 (1000 ha/year) / The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations *234
5. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2020 / Rankings / Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Yale University *180
6. Annual freshwater withdrawals (m3 per capita), 2017 *179
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion m3), 2017 – Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data. /License: CC BY-4.0; 
Population – United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019).
World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website. Retrieved 15 November 2021
7. The National Footprint Accounts 2017 (Biocapacity Credit / Deficit) / Global Footprint Network *188
8. Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent), 2018 / Data for up to 1990 are sourced from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Data from 1990 are CAIT data: Climate Watch. 2020. GHG Emissions. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Available at: License : Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)  *191
9. The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2022 / Overall Results / Jan Burck, Thea Uhlich, Christoph Bals, Niklas Höhne, Leonardo Nascimento /
Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network *60

  * Total number of countries participating in ranking

图9. 塞浦路斯环境指数
 

在生态环保相关国际排名中,有一半指标低于世界平均水平。塞浦路斯在国家足迹账户(0.12)、人均二氧化碳排放量(0.27)和气候变化绩效指数(0.36)方面排名最低。塞浦路斯拥有丰富的生物多样性,但森林面积占土地总面积的百分比低于世界平均水平(0.38)。另一方面,近年来森林面积呈现出稳定的积极趋势(0.55)。环境绩效指数(0.84)和甲烷排放量(0.83)是塞浦路斯最好的指标之一。

参考

[1] List of sovereign states and dependencies by area / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_and_dependencies_by_area
[2] List of countries and dependencies by population density / Wikipedia / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_population_density
[3] Cyprus / The world factbook / Library / Central Intelligence Agency / www.cia.gov
[4] GDP, PPP (constant 2011 international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[5] GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) / World Bank, International Comparison Program database. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[6] Solar resource data obtained from the Global Solar Atlas, owned by the World Bank Group and provided by Solargis / Global Solar Atlas / globalsolaratlas.info
[7] Wind Map / Global Wind Atlas 2.0, a free, web-based application developed, owned and operated by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in partnership with the World Bank Group, utilizing data provided by Vortex, with funding provided by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). For additional information: globalwindatlas.info
[8] Agricultural land (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[9] Forest area (% of land area) /Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. License: CC BY-4.0 / Data / The World Bank / www.worldbank.org
[10] Municipal waste statistics Updated / Statistics Explained / Eurostat / https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Municipal_waste_statistics
[11] Renewable energy statistics 2023 / IRENA / https://www.irena.org/Publications/2023/Jul/Renewable-energy-statistics-2023
[12] International Energy Statistic / Geography / U.S. Energy Information Administration / www.eia.gov/beta/international/
[13] BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020-2022 (PDF) / BP / www.bp.com
[14] Energy mix of Cyprus / EIA / https://www.iea.org/countries/cyprus/energy-mix
[15] Orites Wind Farm / Ellinas Energy / https://www.ellinasenergy.com/orites-wind-farm/
[16] Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan / https://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/cyp205459.pdf

图表和曲线的来源在图像下方指定。

有关塞浦路斯能源行业的更多信息,请参见此处